Industrial Revolution in America

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  1. Timeline of United States inventions (before 1890)
  2. Timeline of United States inventions (1890–1945)
  3. Timeline of United States inventions (1946–1991)
  4. Timeline of United States inventions (after 1991)
  5. National Inventors Hall of Fame
  6. G H Corliss
  7. George Westinghouse
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West Bengal

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  1. West Bengal: South – the Bay of Bengal shoreline
    1. The Sundarbans
      1. Sundarban National Park
  2. West Bengal: North
  3. West Bengal: West
    1. Borders with Malda, Murshidabad , Purulia , Birbhum, West Medinipur
    2. Subarnarekha River
    3. Border with Jharkhand – Farrakka
    4. Border with Bihar north of Farrakka along the Mahananda River 
    5. Border with Odissa at Digha, Subarnarekha River
  4. West Bengal: East
    1. Border with Bangladesh
  5. Districts
    1. North Bengal
    2. Howrah & Hoogly
    3. North & South 24 Parganas
    4. Nadia, Murshidabad
    5. Purulia, Birbhum, Bankura
    6. Burdwan
    7. East and West Midnapore
  6. Kolkata or Calcutta
  7. West Bengal — Tourist Spots

West
On the west,  Malda, Murshidabad , Purulia , Birbhum and  West Medinipur border with Jharkhand. It starts from around Farrakka on the north to West Medinipur on the south right up to the Subarnarekha river.

From Surarnarekha river it borders with Odissa right down to Digha.

 

First Public Railway 1825

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Since the opening in 1825 of the first public railway, the Stockton and Darlington, the whole tenor of English life as well as the English landscape had been transformed. By 1652 there were only a few market towns and coastal resorts without a railway station; twenty years later all these had been provided with one. By 1875 nearrly 500 million passengers were being transported each year, and all London’s main termini, except Blackfriars (1886) and Marylebone (1899) had been completed.

— Story of England by Christopher Hibbert

History Of Europe

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History Of Europe

  1. The Greek History
  2. The Roman History
  3. History of England
  4. History Of France
  5. History of Germany
  6. The History of Spain and Portugal
  7. Netherland
  8. Main Historical Events in Europe
    1. Treaty Of Verdun 843 AD
    2. Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517
    3. Peace Of Augsburg 1555
    4. Defeat of Spanish Armada 1588
    5. Thirty Years’ War (1618-48)
    6. Peace of Westphalia 1648
    7. The Bill Of Rights 1689
    8. Congress Of Vienna 1814

 

Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government

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Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government


Leading up to the 17th century, Europe was a mess of divided religions and constant warfare between groups. It started with the Protestant Reformation where the Catholic Church had gained too much power and the commoners felt the abuse. The Church had the ability to sell indulgences and owned too much land. This led to a split in the Catholic Church between the clergy and the peasants. The Thirty Years war took place from 1618 to 1648 and left Europe in shambles for almost one hundred years later. This led to the rise of absolutism starting in France under the control of Louis XIV, and the debate over how to properly rule.

Two English philosophers by the name of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke emerged with different ideas about the ideal way to govern society. Due to both Hobbes’ and Locke’s differing viewpoints of men in the state of nature, they were forced to disagree on the subject of absolutism, and take different routes on the ideal form of government.

John Locke

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  1. Locke on The Glorious Revolution 1689
  2. 1689 Locke, An Essay on Toleration
  3. 1690 Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Locke: The Reluctant Democrat [Ref 1], [Ref 2], [Ref 3]

John Locke (1632–1704) was born shortly before the English Civil War. Locke studied science and medicine at Oxford University and became a professor there. He sided with the Protestant Parliament against the Roman Catholic King James II in the Glorious Revolution of 1685. This event reduced the power of the king and made Parliament the major authority in English government.

In 1690, Locke published his Two Treatises of Government. He generally agreed with Hobbes about the brutality of the state of nature, which required a social contract to assure peace. But he disagreed with Hobbes on two major points.

First, Locke argued that natural rights such as life, liberty, and property existed in the state of nature and could never be taken away or even voluntarily given up by individuals. These rights were “inalienable” (impossible to surrender). Locke also disagreed with Hobbes about the social contract. For him, it was not just an agreement among the people, but between them and the sovereign (preferably a king).

According to Locke, the natural rights of individuals limited the power of the king. The king did not hold absolute power, as Hobbes had said, but acted only to enforce and protect the natural rights of the people. If a sovereign violated these rights, the social contract was broken, and the people had the right to revolt and establish a new government. Less than 100 years after Locke wrote his Two Treatises of Government, Thomas Jefferson used his theory in writing the Declaration of Independence.

Although Locke spoke out for freedom of thought, speech, and religion, he believed property to be the most important natural right. He declared that owners may do whatever they want with their property as long as they do not invade the rights of others. Government, he said, was mainly necessary to promote the “public good,” that is to protect property and encourage commerce and little else. “Govern lightly,” Locke said.

Locke favored a representative government such as the English Parliament, which had a hereditary House of Lords and an elected House of Commons. But he wanted representatives to be only men of property and business. Consequently, only adult male property owners should have the right to vote. Locke was reluctant to allow the propertyless masses of people to participate in government because he believed that they were unfit.

The supreme authority of government, Locke said, should reside in the law-making legislature, like England’s Parliament. The executive (prime minister) and courts would be creations of the legislature and under its authority.


The philosopher John Locke praised the Glorious Revolution in his Two Treatises on Government (1689), arguing that if a government does not protect the natural rights of its people, namely life, liberty and property, it can rightly and lawfully be overthrown. Locke’s praise of the Glorious Revolution helped to inspire both the American and French revolutions. Locke wrote:[Ref 1], [Ref 2], [Ref 3]
Our Great Restorer, our present King William…in the consent of the people, which being the only one of all lawful, governments…has more fully and clearly than any prince in Christendom…and to justify to the world, the people of England, whose Just and Natural rights, with their resolution to preserve them, saved the Nation when it was on the brink of Slavery and ruin.


1690 John Locke’s Essay on Human Understanding

Johnson Park in April

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  1. Section 0: The bench on the parking lot in front of  the deer area
  2. Section 1: Pictures from the Andrew Doktor bench on the leftmost side of the deck
  3. Section 2: Pictures from the middle of the deck, across from the Lamp Post
  4. Section 3: Pictures from the Bench
  5. Section 4: Pictures from the sign “Authorized Vehicle Only”

Section 0: The bench on the parking lot in front of  the deer area

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Picture 1. On the bench right in front of deer area close to road

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Picture 2: The treetops from the bench over the wire fence.

Walk across the road to the left end of the deck. The Andrew Doctor bench.


Section 1: Pictures from the Andrew Doktor bench on the leftmost side of the deck
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Picture 3. The Andrew Doctor bench above.
IMG_9975Picture 4. From the  Andrew Doctor bench
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Picture 4. Picture of pond from Andrew Doctor bench


Section 2: Pictures from the middle of the deck, across from the Lamp PostIMG_9993Picture 5: The lamp post around the middle of the two semi-circles on the deck            IMG_9994
Picture 6: Picture of the pond taken from the middle of semi-circle perpendicular to the Lamp Post. I am standing right next to the railing.


Section 3: Pictures from the BenchIMG_9995Picture 7.  Sitting on  the bench right across from the Handicapped sign (at the beginning of the semi-circle on the right)     IMG_9998   Picture 8 . Sitting on the bench

IMG_9996Picture 9  Taken from the bench     IMG_9997 Picture 10:  Of the deck sitting on the bench


Section 4: Pictures from the sign “Authorized Vehicle Only”IMG_0002Picture 11: Sign of Authorized vehicle near Mens Room
IMG_0003Picture 12.  White-barked Sycamore from there

 

What is Enlightenment?

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  • “Together, Locke and Newton would become English figureheads of the Enlightenment. With Newton, Locke did so much to sponsor the 18th-century picture of the world as a kind of celestial clock, a vast and mechanical assembly of matter in motion, with man taking his place as an element, like a cog, in a regular and predetermined universe.”
  • Must read The Bill Of Rights (1689) and John Locke’s comments on it

The Bill of Rights reflects a key Enlightenment idea because it limits what government can do and it does so in order to protect the rights of the people. According to Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke, the purpose of government was to protect the basic human rights of its people.


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