Pre-Industrial Revolution

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Spinning is an ancient textile art in which plant, animal or synthetic fibres are drawn out and twisted together to form yarn. For thousands of years, fibre was spun by hand using simple tools, the spindle and distaff. It was only with the invention of the spinning wheel in India, and its subsequent introduction to Europe in the High Middle Ages, that the output of individual spinners dramatically increased. Mass production only arose in the 18th century with the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution. Hand-spinning remains a popular handicraft.

Modern powered spinning, originally done by water or steam power but now done by electricity, is vastly faster than hand-spinning.

The spinning jenny, a multi-spool spinning wheel invented c. 1764 by James Hargreaves, dramatically reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn of high consistency, with a single worker able to work eight or more spools at once. At roughly the same time, Richard Arkwright and a team of craftsmen developed the spinning frame, which produced a stronger thread than the spinning jenny. Too large to be operated by hand, a spinning frame powered by a waterwheel became the water frame.

In 1779, Samuel Crompton combined elements of the spinning jenny and water frame to create the spinning mule. This produced a stronger thread, and was suitable for mechanisation on a grand scale. A later development, from 1828/29, was Ring spinning.

In the 20th century, new techniques including Open End spinning or rotor spinning were invented to produce yarns at rates in excess of 40 meters per second.

Life before the Industrial Revolution (until 1700)

People were concerned with the most basic of primary economic activities. They had  acquired the necessities of survival from the land. Society and culture were overwhelmingly rural and agricultural. Before 1700, virtually all manufacturing was carried on in two systems, cottage and guild industries, and both depended on hand labor and human power.

Cottage industry

Most common, was practiced in farm homes and rural villages where  objects for family use were made in each household.  Most villages had a cobbler, miller, weaver, and smith who worked part-time at home. Skills passed from parents to children with little formality.

Guild industry

It consisted of professional organizations of highly skilled, specialized artisans engaged full time in their trades and based in towns and cities. Membership came after a long apprenticeship. They were fraternal organizations of artisans skilled in a particular craft

In Britain, in the early 1700s

First, human hands were replaced by machines in fashioning finished products. It rendered old manufacturing definition (“made by hand”) obsolete.

A new definition begins to emerge: goods are manufactured not by hands any more. They are made by machines in the factories in England.  Manufacturing transforms raw materials into finished goods for sale, or is being used in intermediate processes involving the production of goods.

Industrial Revolution (1780-1850)

This part of history got its name because Great Britain began inventing new machines and technology.
-Great Britain developed new machines for spinning cotton into yarn.  As a result, Great Britain sold the cheapest cloth.
-It was illegal for cotton spinning machines to leave the country or even skilled machine technicians.

In 1789, Samuel Slater memorized the British spinning machines

He came to the USA and began building cotton spinning  machines to sell to Americans.

In 1793, Eli Whitney  invented the cotton gin.  This machine removed the seeds from the cotton.

Cotton was then sold more cheaply

The USA did better in selling cloth to other countries.

Because cotton could be cleaned in a shorter period of time, the South prospered in this industry.

By using the cotton gin, one man could clean ten times as much cotton as he could have on his own.

He built the USA’s first power loom in Waltham, Massachusetts.

Girls worked in the power loom factory.  They would work 12 to 14 hours a day 6 days a week.

They had to go to bed by 10 and wake up at 5:00 to work.


Mauveine: The first synthetic dye for cloth

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Mauveine was the first synthetic dye for cloth; every color on fabric in the mid-1800s had to be extracted from something in nature, such as a berry’s juice or a beetle’s exoskeleton. The best purple dye available at the time was made from mollusc mucus, which was difficult and expensive to extract. Mauveine was a cheaper and more color-fast alternative, and at the height of the industrial revolution, William Henry Perkin‘s timing was perfect.

Read Article here.

From Aurangjeb to the East India

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The death of the Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707 generally marks the end of the era of the great Mughals, and this was sensed by ambitious men who had worked for them as deputy officials. As his sons became increasingly impotent, independent rulers — like in Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad — established themselves in states around the periphery of empire.

After Aurangjeb, chaos of temporary pleasures with music, women, eunuchs, and other luxuries took the Mughal Empire to the abysmal darkness where they could only imagine their grand and glorious past. The later Mughals fell an easy prey to the intrigues from within and the foreigners who took advantage of their weaknesses and internal conflicts. The Empire became a tale of the bygone lanes and political and social anarchy encouraged the foreigners to occupy India. The traders to India became the master of India in the long run. With the passing away of  Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire functionally breathed its last though it continued till the War of Independence in 1857 when Bahadur Shah Zafar was the last emperor of the great Mughal Dynasty. With his removal (he was exiled to Rangoon) the title of Emperor of India was taken by Queen Victoria.

In the Northern and eastern sectors of India, two major powers — Awadh and  Bengal — began to emerge after the death of Aurangjeb in 1707. In the west and the south another four great powers — Hyderabad, Mysore, the Marathas, and  the Carnatic — began to emerge.

Awadh was one of  major states to emerge between 1717 and 1724 as the central Mughal government ruled by Aurangjeb’s sons began to lose real authority.

Bengal was the first, in 1717 under Murshid Quli Khan ( Shia Islam), the founder of a short-lived dynasty, whose successors  were to be emasculated by the east India Company forty years later at the Battle of Plassey.

The second was Awadh, which became virtually  autonomous in 1722 under Burhan-ul-Mulk, who had been appointed deputy minister (nawab wazir) to  deputise for the emperor, and who generally assumed his master’s role.  His sixthgeneration descendant was Wajid ‘Ali Shah, the subject of this bookAwadh survived for alittle over 130 years before its annexationsubject to increasing interference from the Company. In 1856, the Company annexed Awadh [Oudh]  on the grounds that the native prince was of evil disposition, indifferent to the welfare of his subjects.

The third state was Hyderabad, established under Asaf Jah in 1724; it survived the fate of Bengal and Awadh by remaining Hyderabad, established under Asaf Jah in 1724; it survived the fate of Bengal and Awadh by remaining more or less independent until 1948. (The ruler of Hyderabad since 1762 was Asaf Jah II (also known as Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Nizam ‘Ali Khan Bahadur, Fath Jang, Sipah Salar, better known to the British simply as Nizam Ali. His ancestor, the Turani noble Qamar-ud-din, received the title Nizam-ul-Mulk from the emperor Farruksiyar for helping him to gain the throne of Delhi. Uniting with another powerful Mughal noble, Sa’adat Khan, Nizam-ul-Mulk overthrew the infamous Sayyid brothers, the “kingmakers” who had deposed and killed Farruksiyar in 1719 in order to put a series of their puppets on the throne. Sa’adat went on to found the Awadh dynasty which, perhaps because of its proximity to Delhi, maintained some ties to the Mughals, although by 1780  it was autonomous in all but name.)

Rosie Llewellyn-Jones in The Last King in India: Wajid Ali Shah

Read Oudh and the East India Company by Purnendu Basu

The West and the South: Hyderabad, Mysore, Marathas, Carnatic

In the power vacuum that appeared in India mid-18th-century owing to the weakening of Mughal control, the four great powers in the south and in the west — Hyderabad, Mysore, the Marathas, and the Company with its ally the Carnatic — began jostling each other in a series of wars over boundaries and lands.
All four were evenly matched in strength–with armies of between 80,000 and 100,0007–and in training, with the Indian states having acquired Western methods and instruments of war.In 1788 another independent ruler, Tipu Sultan, son of the long-time foe of the British, Haidar Ali, ruled Mysore. Theirs was a new dynasty even by the lenient standards of a continent in flux.

The last great Indian power on the subcontinent in 1788 were the Marathas, the warlike peasant caste of Maharashtra, who had obtained coherence under the leadership of the famous “mountain rat,” Shivaji Bhonsle (1627-80). After Aurangzeb’s death, the leadership of the Marathas passed to a pentarchy consisting of four powerful generals–Gaekwar at Baroda, Holkar at Indore, Sindhia at
Gwalior, and Bhonsle at Nagpur–who were technically united by allegiance to the
peshwa of Poona, the chief minister of the raja of Satara. By the 1760s the Marathas,
under the peshwa’s leadership, controlled a vast area spreading from the Indus river to the far south of India, and even their loss at the battle of Panipat in 1761 to the Afghans over control of Delhi was not the disaster it first appeared.

Aurangjeb Conquering the Deccans

Location of Qutb Shahi Dynasty in South at Golkunda. The other Deccan sultanates are also shown here.

Apart from Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad, the Deccan Sultanates were there to  contend with.

The Deccan was coveted territory. Located on east-west trade routes, it was rich in natural resources and fine products, and it attracted people from across the Middle East and Europe, making it a cultural melting pot if not always a political one. Its golden age began toward the end of the Bahmani Empire, which broke away from the Delhi Sultanate to the north in 1347 and ruled over the entire Deccan with decreasing power until around 1538. By then the governors of the five Bahmani states had rebelled, declaring themselves sultans of individual kingdoms. The greater were Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda, the lesser Bidar and Berar.

Over the next 150 years, the sultans and their successors built palaces and cities, established workshops and reached out to artists, writers and composers, especially from the centers of Islamic creativity in Persia, Turkey and Africa.

In 1574,  Mutaza I , sultan of Ahmadnagar annexed Berar to his sultanate. In 1619, the last ruler of the Bidar, sulatante Amir Barid Shah III, fell  to  Bijapur and Bidar thereafetr merged with the Bijapur Sultanate. In 1636 Aurangzeb, then Mughal viceroy of Deccan finally annexed the Ahmadnagar sultanate to the Mughal empire.


So, among all Deccan Sultanate, only Bijapur and Golconda remained to be annexed by Aurangjeb.

To contain the Marathas Aurangzeb invaded Bijapur (under Sikandar Adil Shah) and annexed it in 1686. This brought an end to Adil Shahi dynasty. Bijapur became the seat of the Mughal provincial governor.

Then Aurangzeb ordered attack against Abul Hassan Qutub Shah of Golconda. In 1687 the Mughal army entered the Golconda fort and Golconda was annexed by the Mughal Empire. Thus fell the last of the Deccani sultanates to Mughal Empire.

After the downfall of Bijapur and Golconda Aurangzeb concentrated all his forces against the Marathas.

East India Company and the Deccan Sultanate

Clickable Map of India in 1804


Map of India after the Second Anglo-Maratha War, 1805

The first Governor-General of India was Warren Hastings. Under his dispensation, the expansion of British rule in India was pursued vigorously, and the British sought to master indigenous systems of knowledge. Hastings remained in India until 1784 and was succeeded by Cornwallis, who initiated the Permanent Settlement, whereby an agreement in perpetuity was reached with zamindars or landlords for the collection of revenue. For the next fifty years, the British were engaged in attempts to eliminate Indian rivals, and it is under the administration of Wellesley that British territorial expansion was achieved with ruthless efficiency. Major victories were achieved against Tipu Sultan of Mysore and the Marathas, and finally the subjugation and conquest of the Sikhs in a series of Anglo- Sikh Wars led to British occupation over the entirety of India.


Map of India after the Third Anglo-Maratha War, 1819

1765 Treaty Of Allhabad


Seventeen sixty-five marked the origin of empire with Robert Clive’s attainment of the diwani of Bengal from Mughal Emperor Shah Alam (See above, which conferred the right on the Company to collect the revenues and to administer one of the most fertile regions in India for the Mughal emperors. As Mughal hegemony was quickly becoming an anachronism, the Company found itself virtually
sovereign over the breadbasket of India, the traditional starting point for conquest from
the time of the Mauryas to that of the Mughals themselves. However, the problems that
accompanied even the early stages of empire-building soon caused consternation in
Britain. The “nabobs,” men who had left England paupers and returned from the East as
millionaires, flaunted their successful plunder of the subcontinent by purchasing titles,
grand mansions and seats in parliament, while their wives glittered through the London
social scene in maharanis’ jewels. Tales of corruption, financial peculation and
mismanagement flowed back with the golden tide from India, along with news of a
seemingly never-ending succession of wars–first against the French, then with numerousIndian rulers. This culminated in 1787 with the sensational trial of Warren Hastings forfraud and unnecessary aggression while governor-general. Edmund Burke, a prominentMP, made long speeches during Hastings’ impeachment, decrying the governor-general’sactions and contrasting them with those of the Indian rulers, who were portrayed asenlightened monarchs with beneficial practices.

In 1766, the first trickle of what would become a great wave of publicity began when
the British government conceived a case for abolishing the Company and taking control
of its Indian possessions–including the £2 million a year in estimated tax revenue gained
with the diwani of Bengal. This may have been less a serious suggestion than an attempt
to appropriate a portion of the Company’s new found wealth to pay down the national
debt; if so, it was a successful tactic. The Company reluctantly agreed in 1767 to pay the
staggering sum of £400,000 a year in return for continued independence.


It can be argued that 1783 was the real beginning of British imperialism on the sub-continent: the end of the American war turned British eyes towards India as a substitute for the empire they had lost; Warren Hastings’ actions as governor-general publicized the affairs of the Company to a degree unknown before and led to furious debates over the proper role of the British in India; and William Pitt’s East India Act was being formulated, which would culminate the next year in the British government attaining a significant amount of control over the Company’s affairs. The Company then changed from a mercantile association based in North India and a few coastal stations to an empire spanning the sub-continent. Eighteen-eighteen (1818) witnessed the Company’s final victory over the Marathas, the last great, independent Indian power. Between 1783 and 1818, the mercantilists in the Company’s service became functionaries of the new empire: diplomats, administrators, statesmen and spies replaced in importance the bookkeepers and accountants of the previous age. There was no precedent for what they were called upon to do, and no guidelines on how to build an infrastructure capable of ruling a land far larger and more diverse than Britain. Although few of them had prior training for the task, they built a workable system that endured under the Company’s rule until 1858, and became the basis for every subsequent Indian


Murshid Quli Khan died on 30 June 1727. He founded the city Murshidabad.  Alivardi Khan became the Nawab of Bengal during 1740–1756.  After him, Siraj ud-Daulah reigned from  9 April 1756 – 23 June 1757.

The Rise of the Awadh Successor State

In the period 1722-75 three nawabs reigned through several phases of state formation in Awadh. The. state has been described as “a distinct realm of structured political relations that is defined by contention along its boundaries and among politicians and bureaucrats who, in competing for office and influence, rework social and economic conflict into political terms,” and emphasis has shifted in the scholarly study of state making from static institutions to the “structured relations between the state and other spheres of society.”[9] The question arises of what social forces influenced the rise of the nawabs to regional autonomy in Awadh. As Iranian Shi‘is, the nawabs, originally temporary Mughal appointees, seem at first glance an elite group unlikely to assert strong authority over the Hindu peasants and Sunni townsmen of Awadh. How they made Shi‘i rule at all palatable to Awadh’s population must occupy us as a central question. Moreover, it might be asked if there arc any parallels between the rise of Shi‘i rule in Awadh and that of the Safavids earlier in Iran.

The emergence of the province of Awadh as a Shi‘i-ruled state depended in part on developments at the Timurid court, where the Mughal administrative elite allowed Iranian Shi‘i immigrants to rise as provincial governors. On the one hand, pohtical instability in Iran encouraged large numbers of Iranian notables to go to India; on the other, the mood at court after the passing of Awrangzib (d. 1707) grew decidedly more tolerant of Shi‘ism. Awrangzib’s successor, Bahadur Shah (d. 1712), leaned heavily toward Shi‘i Islam.[10] The Shi‘i Barhah Sayyids, mere Delhi courtiers, made and unmade Mughal emperors, further demonstrating growing Shi‘i power. Greater tolerance at court allowed more elite recruitment of avowed Shi‘is to high office,

The Iranians made an impact, not only on the Delhi court, but on North India as a whole. Mir Muhammad Amin Nishapuri (d. 1739), the first nawab of Awadh, began a dynasty that ruled for 136 years. Nishapuri. known as Burhanu’l-Mulk, derived from a family of Islamic judges (qazis ) in Khurasan, whom Shah Ismacil Safavi of Iran transplanted there from Najaf as part of his campaign to make Iran Shi‘i.[11] Nishapuri came to India in 1708, where he worked himself up the bureaucratic ladder to emerge as a power broker in Delhi. He helped free the Mughal emperor, Muhammad

Aurangjeb’s sons

He had four sons: Azam, Moazzam, Akbar and Kambakhsh who were waiting to ascend to the throne.

Moazzam became the ruler of Agra February 1708 after defeating all his brotheers and began an exclusive rule
with the title of Bahadur Shah l or Shah Alam l till his death in February 1712. His death again gave birth to the
war of accession among his sons: Jahandar Shah and Farrukhsiyar. Jahandar Shah succeeded to access the throne but
after a few months Farrukhsiyar snatched the throne.

Shi‘i dynasty ruled the state of Awadh

Awadh was established as one of the twelve original subahs (top-level imperial provinces) under 16th-century Mughal emperor Akbar and became a hereditary tributary polity around 1722 AD, with Faizabad as its initial capital and Saadat Ali Khan as its first Subadar Nawab and progenitor of a dynasty of Nawabs of Awadh (often styled Nawab Wazir al-Mamalik).

Saadat Ali Khan belonged to a dynasty of Persian origin from Nishapur, Iran.

From 1500 to 1600 the Ottoman Empire expanded from Anatolia into eastern Europe and conquered Syria (1516), Egypt (1517), and Iraq (1534). The Safavid Empire, based in Azerbaijan, subdued the Iranian plateau. The Mughal Empire reached from Kabul down into the Gangetic plain, uniting most of northern India. These three Muslim states, their power based partially on borrowed Chinese and European technical advances in artillery.

Ottoman Istanbul, Safavid Isfahan, and Mughal Agra dazzled travelers with their splendor in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Their wealth, based primarily on agriculture and only secondarily on trade and manufactures, is indisputable. But their rulers and craftsmen borrowed technology from Europe instead of innovating, so that they gave the world few new developments in weaponry or industry. From at least the fifteenth century, Europe produced more made goods, including, for instance, silk textiles, whereas the Middle East and South Asia sent raw materials (raw silk, spices such as pepper) to Europe. But the western European edge in mechanical inventiveness and the ability to accumulate capital only manifested itself with full force after 1760. Until the late eighteenth century, manufacturing and agricultural productivity, and transportation costs and speed, did not improve dramatically in Europe.

The political and economic flowering of the three sixteenth-century Muslim empires in South and Southwest Asia had a religious impact. The Ottomans promoted the Hanafi rite of Sunni Islam as their state religion, developing a highly institutionalized and bureaucratic religious establishment. The Safavids and their Shi‘i Turkoman followers from Anatolia made Twelver Shi‘ism the religion of state and heavy-handedly imposed it on Sunni Iran. They brought in Arab Shi‘i clerics from southern Lebanon and southern Iraq to man the fledgling religious institution and relied also on notable clerical families within Iran who embraced Shi‘ism. The Mughals, originating in largely Turkish-speaking Central Asia, promoted Hanafi Sunnism. Religious ideology and a corps of ulama organized around institutions useful to the state played an important political role in each of the three Muslim empires.

The southwestern Deccani kingdom of Bijapur also experienced Shi‘i rule and Iranian influence in the sixteenth century, 1502-34 and 1558-83, under the ‘Adil Shahi dynasty. Shi‘i Iranian merchants plied the horse trade from the Persian Gulf to Bijapur, and Shi‘i notables achieved high office there. Yusuf ‘Adil Shah (1489-1510), an Ottoman Turkish exile with tics to the Safavid Ismacil, proclaimed Shi‘ism the state religion in Bijapur in 1502, on hearing of the Safavid victory. This proclamation encouraged even more Iranians to immigrate, and the ‘Adil Shahis employed them as administrators or military men. The Shi‘i monarchs hired three hundred Iranians to curse the first three caliphs.


The Deccan Shi‘i States

Indian Ocean trade routes linked the Persian Gulf with southern India, encouraging a migration of people and ideas between the two areas. Iranian notables, administrators, military men, and literati flooded into southern India, or the Deccan, during the Mongol invasions of Iran in the thirteenth century, and thereafter. Especially after the Safavid victory, these Iranian elites often adopted Shi‘ism. Diplomatically and in its elite culture southern India became a dependency of Iran in the sixteenth century. Iranian notables carried with them their new conviction in Usuli Shi‘ism, providing patronage for Friday congregational prayer mosques and other Usuli Twelver institutions.

The longest-lasting of the Shi‘i-ruled states in southern India, the Qutb-Shahi (1512-1687), began with the political rise in Golconda of a Turkoman adventurer from Hamadan, Iran, named Sultan-Quli Qutbu’d-Din. The rulers in his line gave extensive patronage to Shi‘i ulama and built mosques, buildings (cashur-khanah ) for the commemoration of Imam Husayn’s martyrdom, seminaries, and Shi‘i burial grounds. They had the Friday prayer sermons said in the name of the Twelve Imams and of the Safavids.


বিরিয়ানি থেকে সরোদ শিখিয়েছিলেন কলকাতাকে

Building Materials

Back to Industrial Revolution

From A Short History of Technology By Derry and Williams, Chap 14

Image result for deposits of cement rock

Definition of Metallic Minerals

As it is evident from the name itself, metallic minerals are the type of minerals that are composed of metals. These are hard substances, which are the good conductor of heat and electricity. They have their own lustre. Some examples of metallic minerals are Iron, copper, gold, bauxite, manganese, etc.

Metallic Minerals can be classified into two categories:

  • Ferrous Mineral: The minerals that contain iron content are called ferrous minerals. Three-fourth of the total production of metallic minerals are constituted by ferrous metallic minerals. It includes iron ore, manganese, nickel and chromite.
  • Non-ferrous Mineral: Those minerals which comprise of some other metal rather than iron is known as a non-ferrous metallic mineral. They are commonly used in our day to day life. It includes gold, copper, silver, lead, tin, etc.

Definition of Non-metallic Minerals

Non-metallic minerals can be described as the minerals that do not comprise of metals. Some examples of non-metallic minerals are limestone, manganese, mica, gypsum, coal, dolomite, phosphate, salt, granite, etc.

Non-metallic minerals are used in various industries to manufacture different products; mica is used in electrical and electronics industry, limestone is highly used in cement industry. These are also used in the production of fertilizers and manufacturing refractories.

Crushed limestone quarry near Bellefonte, Pennsylvania.

What’s the Difference Between Cement, Concrete, and Mortar?

Mortar Mortar is used to hold building materials such as brick or stone together. It is composed of a thick mixture of water, sand, and cement. The water is used to hydrate the cement and hold the mix together. The water to cement ratio is higher in mortar than in concrete in order to form its bonding element. When mixed, it is a much thicker substance than concrete, making it ideal as a glue for building materials like brick.
Concrete Concrete is used for support, such as beams, walls, or other building foundations.It a mixture of sand, cement, water and rock chippings or gravel which makes it much stronger and more durable than mortar. It has a low water to cement ratio and is much thinner than mortar. Concrete is used in structural projects and is often reinforced with steel rebar to maintain its structural integrity as the soil beneath it settles. The grade of concrete is represented by M where M stands for mix. The grades could be M20, M25 etc. The Mix Ratio of different grades are concretes are expressed in Cement: Sand :Aggregate. For example:

Concrete Mix Design


    3. Creating column with concrete, Youtube, How to Use Rebar by askme2buildit
    4. Roof construction with concrete, Youtube, Intelligent Techniques Construction Roof Using Ready Mixed Concrete – Building House, Step By Step by Mixers Construction
    5. Reinforcement for Square column 18 inch, BY Life is Awesome Civil Engineering Plans, Youtube video from India

What camera and lens to buy

Back to Camera

Price list as on Feb, 2018

DSLR Cameras
Nikon D500 DX-Format  with 16-80mm ED VR Lens (body only $1899)
Nikon D7500 DX-Format   with 18-140mm Lens
Nikon D7200 DX-Format  24.2 MP DX Format DSLR Camera w/ DX NIKKOR 18-140mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR Lens
Nikon D750  FX-Format  & AF-S NIKKOR
24-120mm f/4G ED VR Lens
Nikon D610 FX-Format DSLR Camera w/24-85MM Lens
Nikon D610 FX-Format w/AF-S NIKKOR
28-300mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR
 Nikon D810 FX-Format w AF-S NIKKOR 24-120mm f/4G ED VR  $3,299.95

Old Post

  1. Nikon Camera Prices Oct 2014

Rhythm of Sonnets

Back to Shakespearean Sonnets

Poetry: Rhythm and Meter – ppt video at
Rhythm and Meter The Song of Hiawatha Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.

How has Shakespeare composed rhythm in his sonnet?

Rhythm refers to the naturally occurring patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line.  Shakespeare has used a specific pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in his sonnets to create the rhythm.

Each line in his sonnet has 10 syllables. They are paired in five groups or unit each comprising of an unstressed and a stressed ones.

These units are called mertical units or feet. Now let’s describe this with an example.

Before going to the example, note that you will experience rhythm when you read the poem out loud correctly.

Now, let’s consider a line from one of his sonnets as shown  below.

The following line explains Figure 1:

           Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

The line has five metrical units or “Feet” as shown in the Figure 1 in green boxes.  These metrical units or Feet make up the rhythm (or beat) of poetry.  When you read the line, you should stress the red ones.

Each “Feet” is composed of one unstressed and one stressed syllable. Therefore, each line of his sonnets has 10 syllables organized in a specific pattern.

Important notes

If a line of verse has five feet, we call it a pentameter.
If  a feet  has one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable , we call it an “Iambic Feet

If a line of verse has five Iambic Feets in a line, then we call an Iambic Pentameter.

Since Shakespeare sonnets has five iambic feets in every line, we say that Shakespeare has composed his sonnets in Iambic Pentameter.

Moving further, when a line of poem has the following five Feet or metrical units:
         {Iamb}, {Iamb}, {Iamb}, {Iamb}, {Iamb}
we say that the poem is written in Iambic pentameter. Shakespeare wrote his sonnets in Iambic pentameter. Now, the table below has got all the elements that comprise rhythm of poem:


———————-Line ——————————————————————————————————————————————Consists of words
Ex: Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
Word Shall, I, compare etc.
Syllable Component’s of word, usually consisting of stressed and unstressed components. Very important to remember that it is the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poem that is called “Rhythm.” Example: The word “summer” has two syllables: (1) sum and (2) mer.
In Figure 1, the first syllable “sum” is stressed and is denoted by a “/” on top. The second syllable “mer” is unstressed and is marked by ”  ” on top.
Feet A Feet is a combination of two adjacent syllables. For example:
Shall, I –> One Feet  {unstressed (Shalll), stressed(I)}
Com,pare —> One Feet {unstressed(com), stressed(pare)}
Thee, to —> One Feet
A, sum —> One Feet
Mer’s, day —> One Feet
There are five main types of “poetic” Feet: Iamb, Trochee, Spondee, Anapest, Dactyl.
Rhythm It is a combination of Feet in a line of poetry.  In the above line, that pattern is comprised of 5 Feet:
{unstressed, stressed}, {unstressed, stressed}, {unstressed, stressed}, {unstressed, stressed}, {unstressed, stressed}
Meter Types of Meter:
Monometer: one foot per line
Dimeter: Two feet per line
Trimeter: three feet per line
Tetrameter: four feet per line
Pentameter: five feet per line.
Trimeter, Tetrameter and Pentameter are the most common examples of meters. So, if I need five Feet per line, then I need a Pentameter. Now, if each of these five feet is Iambic, as shown in Figure 1 in green boxes, then we call it a “Iambic pentameter.
Iambic Feet Since every Feet has one unstressed syllable at the beginning and one stressed syllable at the end, the Line has got 5 “Iambic Feet.”
Iambic pentameter In Iambic Pentameter, every line has ten syllables and five Iambic Feets. The first is unstresses, the next is stressed, the third one is unstressed and so on:
{unstressed, stressed}, {unstressed, stressed}, {unstressed, stressed}, {unstressed, stressed}, {unstressed, stressed}
Therefore we should say this: The rhythm of his sonnets have been achieved by using five feets in every line. This particular type of pattern or rhythmical pattern is called Iambic pentameter.


1. Words do not hold the Feet together. Syllables hold the Feet. That is why [Shall I] is the first Feet where “Shall” is unstressed and “I” is stressed (see the marks above the syllables).

Here the Feet are shown in green boxes. The fifth Feet starts from the middle of word “summer’s” – that because you construct Feet by syllables and not by words.You start from the left of the Line and pick two syllables (first unstressed, second stressed) together and they become one Feet. That is why the line has 5 Feet. Since every Feet has one unstressed syllable at the beginning and one stressted syllable at the end, the Line has got 5 “Iambic Feet.” So, the each of the Lines has five iambic Feet, each is said to have Iambic pentameter.

When you scan a line of poetry, you analyze its rhythm. You mark the syllables that are stressed(“/”) and those that are unstressed, as in Figure 1. This system is called scansion.

Analyzing rhythm of  poem: Further point
How the rhythm of a poem is analyzed is given above. Here is another figure to highlight what we have done. It shows the stressed and unstressed syllables of the rhyme along with the effect created by that rhyme.

Rhyme of  poem
Figure 2 shows the rhyme of the Shakespearean sonnet. It is abab cdcd efef gg as shown besides each of the lines.
Figure 2


Each line in Shakespeare’s sonnet has ten syllables, organized into five beats (or, technically speaking iambic Feet) where each beat consists of the second syllable of a Feet, (as in “But soft”, the da-dum rhythm forming an “iamb.”). His verse is unusually flexible, allowing a range of rhythmic effects. but as a flexible set of practices rooted in dramatic necessity. It is designed to highlight ideas and emotions and therefore is not always based upon rigid syllable counts.

Positions of the sun, the earth and the moon

Back to the season


Position of the Sun during four seasons


Between the December Solstice and March Equinox, night is longer than the day. On March Equinox, the length of day and night are the same. After March Equinox, days gets longer until June Solstice.

Again on the September Equinox, the day and night are of the same length. After September, the night gets longer until the December Solstice.

The word equinox is derived from the Latin equi, which means equal, and nox, which means night.

Both the equinoxes and solstices help shephard in the changing of the seasons.



March or Spring or Vernal equinox

THE VERNAL equinox  marks the first day of spring.

On the date of the equinox, both day and night are almost the same length around the globe. Afterwards, the day is longer than the night.

The moment when day and night are exactly equal length is known as the equilux and occurs a few days before the equinox.

The Winter or December Solstice

The shortest day of the year marks the start of winter and is thus called the Winter Solstice. On this day, the north pole is tilted farthest away from the sun.