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Life of Charles the Great by Einhard (830–833)

Feudal system during the Middle Ages | World History | Khan Academy

The Palace of Aachen and

The Palatine Chapel (built 790–805) of Charlemagne

The Fronsac castle (770) by Charlemagne

Carolingian Empire and its capital, Aachen, in the early 9th century.
Pavia, the capital of Lombardy from 572 to 774

Map of Italy and Northern Italy at the death of Lombard king Alboin (572)

History of creation of Papal states by Pepin and the Map of Lombard territories in Italy in 756 before the donation by Pepin to Pope Stephen II. During Stephen’s pontificate, Rome was facing invasion by the Lombard king Aistulf when Stephen II went to Paris to seek assistance from Pepin the Short. Pepin defeated the Lombards and made a gift of land to the pope, eventually leading to the establishment of the Papal States. The gift included the following cities:  the Emilia-Romagna, the Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento, and the Pentapolis (the “five cities” of Rimini, Pesaro, Fano, Senigallia and Ancona). Pepin however left the Lombard king Aistulf in possession of their kingdom with Pavia as their capital.

Map of Europe at the death of Cherlamagne, 815 AD

Map of Francia in 714 (Austrasia shown in green)

The Holy Roman Empire between 972 and 1032

We might begin by emphasizing that at the summit of the Carolingian governmental system was the head of the Carolingian family, who bore the title of king up to 800, of emperor — the Holy Roman Emperor — afterwards. Backed by the power of the Church, this Carolingian monarch was ruler by the grace of God, and rebellion against him was, in theory at least, disobedience to the Almighty. As ruler of the Franks, Lombards, and the other peoples who made up this vast empire, he was supreme judge and lawgiver, general, and administrator. In practice he was head of the Church. He was not a despot, however, and his authority was absolute rather than arbitrary, since he was limited by both law and custom. He did not have the right, for instance, of taxing his subjects directly, nor could he arbitrarily interfere with their property or rights, except in war, without following the cumbersome legal procedures of the time.

Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers (734-743)

The chief limitation upon the power of the Carolingian monarch, however,  does not appear to have been the result of the restraining influence of law, custom, and other precedents. It lay in the paucity of his financial resources. He did not have adequate money to pay for a self-perpetuating bureaucracy of officials who could govern in his name, or resources which enabled him to hire soldiers to fight for him. In this respect his government was inferior to that of his Moslem and Byzantine neighbors. In addition the extent of the Carolingian empire made it impossible for a monarch to supervise personally remote regions, as might have been possible had the empire been smaller. Though efforts were made, as we will note, to get around such limitations, no real solution of a governmental sort was ever devised in the Carolingian period.

Carolingian Empire and its capital, Aachen, in the early 9th century.

The count was the basic official of the Carolingian  governmental system. He was a man of proven ability, often related to the royal house, who was given a charge or honorem as it was called, as ruler of a district, which he exercised in the name of the monarch. He was a kind of sub-king in this district, exercising all the functions of government. He led into battle the army of his county, consisting of the ban, or levy of free-born men, and was responsible for the county’s defense and its fortifications. He managed the fiscus of the crown, that is to say, the royal estates of his county and such dues and levies as the king had a right to exact. He was responsible for law and order and presided over the royal courts in cases brought before them. He was in charge of the mint, which he operated in the name of the monarch. Except where royal immunities or private seigneurial jurisdiction intervened, he was supreme in his county. A count did not receive a salary for his services, but was rewarded by a share in the fines of the county courts and other revenues which were the perquisite of his office. Often too he was given land owned by the monarch as his own. The eagerness with which men sought the dignity of count seems to show that the office carried with it ample rewards.  ——

While the count was the leading official of his county, there were others who, in a sense, shared his authority. These were the archbishops, bishops, and abbots of important monasteries. More often than not appointed by the Carolingian monarchs, possessing important lands in local areas of the Southern France, such churchmen eagerly sought and generally received special privileges from the crown. The most important were the royal immunities which placed their churches or abbeys under royal protection and which gave them a right to hold their own courts and manage their properties free of fiscal interference by the counts.

Map of France 1030

Map of France in 1154

To control their counts, the leading weapon available to the Carolingians, (besides support for their potential rivals, the abbots and bishops of the local region) was removal from office. There were some other methods also used by them to keep the counts in check. None of these methods, however, seems to have been really satisfactory in keeping counts from entrenching their families firmly in particular districts of the Midi or the Spanish March.

This being the case, Charlemagne and Louis the Pious made use of another method which had been begun by their predecessors — vassalage or fidelitas. All counts, bishops, and abbots who were given honores had to do homage to the monarch for them and in a special ceremony swear an oath of personal allegiance. This solemn oath and ceremony established a special tie between him who swore it and the ruler, a tie which, according to the Manual of Dhuoda, could not be broken as long as either was alive. Nor were counts and important churchmen the only ones who were bound to the ruler by such ties. In the Midi, as elsewhere in the empire, are to be found a class of important landowners known as vassi dominici, who were given land belonging to the royal fisc as life benefices in return for an oath of allegiance or fidelitas. These men, often Frankish in origin, and known as fideles, seem to have had special military responsibilities, which meant they were to present themselves fully equipped for campaigns upon call of king or count.

According to the Astronomus, Charlemagne followed the policy of his predecessors in Aquitaine about 778, when he appointed as abbots and counts men of Frankish origin exclusively. In examining men who were appointed as counts later on by Charlemagne and Louis the Pious many historians have been impressed by the number of these officials who were of Frankish origin. These facts made some historians think that the Carolingians were  leaders of a group of Austrasian noble families, who were tied to them by blood and vassalage, through whom they conquered and governed their empire and kept control over the Church.

Did the Carolingians try to establish throughout Southern France colonies of Franks as military garrisons to hold down the local population? The Astronomus certainly implies as much when he tells us  that Charlemagne established the Franks throughout Aquitaine  to control the local population who were not Franks. But what evidence can we find to back up his assertion? Here Septimania seems of particular importance since it had never been Frankish prior to the eighth century, and, any evidence of Frankish colonies there must date from the Carolingian period.

Southern French and Catalan Society (778-828)

During the reigns of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious a number of changes took place in the
society of Southern France and Catalonia, which were more significant than the purely governmental ones discussed in the last chapter. These changes helped to modify the nature of this society and to lay the bases for its development. The most important were the emergence of a new method of landholding, especially in Septimania and Catalonia, the development of a set of personal relationships which might be called proto-feudal, and the revitalization of the Church, particularly in respect to its monastic institutions. To these should be added two more: the beginnings of an agricultural revolution which put vacant and unused land in cultivation, and a limited but no less real revival of trade.

With two systems of landholding already in existence, the Carolingian monarchs added a third, the aprisio. In 780, when Charlemagne had to face the problem of providing for Spanish refugees with land. He solved this problem by allotting to these hispani tracts of uncultivated land in Septimania. Two different types of refugees were given such allotments, the important ones or majores, who arrived in the Midi with servants and many followers, and the less important ones known as minores.  As territory south of the Pyrenees was gradually liberated from the Moslem yoke, the aprisio system was extended into Catalonia, until by 812 such holdings were to be found over a wide area in the maritime Catalan counties of Barcelona, Gerona, Ampurias, and Roussillon, as well as around Narbonne, Carcassonne, and Béziers, and in Provence.

Privileges enjoyed by the large aprisio holders also carried with them certain responsibilities. The most important one was the duty of military service. These milites, as they were sometimes called, were required, upon call, to join the count’s army and take part in frontier campaigns. They also had to furnish horses and purveyance to royal missi and envoys traveling to and from Spain. They were also permitted to receive benefices from counts and to enter into a dependent relationship with them in return for such grants of lands.

But what of small holders who were given aprisiones: the minores? What about these and their rights? We know less about them than the majores, other than that they were dissatisfied with their situation in 815 and complained about how they were being oppressed by the majores. They were certainly numerous, particularly a little later where they formed a considerable element in the population of Catalonia. Like the milites who help aprisiones, the  minores seem to have been free men, who were given their grants of aprisiones by larger landholders: counts, churches, or abbeys. In return they appear to have put it into cultivation and to have paid the original proprietor a cens, sometimes one third of the crop. They were certainly also subject to call for military service and responsible for the same corvées and purveyance as the more important aprisio holders.

Map of France 1030

Map of France in 1154

The Governmental System of the Midi and Catalonia

To sum up, then, the governmental system of the Midi did change during the years from 828 to 900 from what it had been under Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. Not only did noble families establish themselves as de facto hereditary rulers of important regions, but in the process the use of viscounts became more widespread, along with some use of vicars in a minor but important subordinate capacity. As this happened vassi dominici — or the bondage towards the Carolingian emperors — disappeared though some of their functions may have been taken over or transformed into those of vassi beholden to local counts instead of to Carolingian and Capetian monarchs who lived north of the Loire. In other words, the empire had shown signs of decay, there was no central power in the region and regional counts became dominant.

Another consideration, however, seems more important — a subtle but real change in the nature of power exercised by counts after 870. As they made their authority private and hereditary, they came to think of it as a private family possession and so subject to traditions of the equal division of family property among all heirs — as Roman and Visigothic law provided.  Down to 900, at least, the system of law and of courts continued in a form like that
established by the earlier Carolingian rulers. Courts, judging from our documents, continued to be held in most regions and were presided over by counts, or their legal representatives, the viscounts, the vicars, and the missi. In addition to such secular tribunals we find evidence of other courts in these regions. These are ecclesiastical ones presided over by bishops and abbots. They were in line with Carolingian practice which, in granting immunities to abbeys and churches, gave them the right to establish courts for those subject to their authority. The earliest example of such a court in our sources is one held in the Limousin over which Bishop Stodile of Limoges presided and in which a dispute between a nearby abbey and a vassus of the bishop was handled.

Stephen III

The Ottonians

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Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Otto The Great
  3. Otto II (973 – 983)
  4. Henry II (1014-24)

By the early tenth century, a ducal family from Saxony (in northern Germany) had mustered the power to claim royal standing, and in 936, Otto I, known as Otto the Great, was crowned king at Aachen; in 962, the pope invested him with the imperial title. Under the reigns of Otto I (r. 936–73), and of his son and grandson, Otto II (r. 973–83) and Otto III (r. 983–1002), the Holy Roman Empire was revived, albeit with a different geography and a different character. The Ottonian empire encompassed the lands that now are Germany, Switzerland, northern and central Italy, but not the vast French territories that Charlemagne had held. The Ottonian emperors styled themselves the equals of the greatest rulers. They constructed a palace in Rome and spent long periods there near the pope, whose spiritual authority bolstered their claim to rule by God-given right. They also sought close ties with Byzantium, a power of much superior might and sophistication, and sealed a strategic alliance when the Byzantine princess Theophano married Otto II in 972.

Otto II died in Southern Italy while campaigning against the Byzantine Empire and the Emirate of Sicily. Otto III was crowned as King of Germany in 983 at the age of three. Otto III installed his cousin as Pope Gregory V, the first Pope of German descent.

The Holy Roman Empire

The History of Germany
To The Franks

Table of Contents

Voltaire said that the Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire. And he was right. It was actually a loose confederation of European states in what is today’s Germany, the Czech Republic, Austria, Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, and parts of France, Italy and Poland.

It is one of the most intriguing stories of central Europe that starts with the Pope anointing Charlemagne — the King of the Franks — as the king of Italy. Hence the title the Holy Roman Empire. From there you find that Charlemagne’s children — the Carolingians — ruling that vast central Europe along with Italy for a long time; with time, it gets fragmented into many kingdoms ruled by the Carolingians. The entire empire became a confederate of several kingdoms with more powerful kings dominating the show.

After a while, it was Otto the Great, a Saxon, seized power around 919. He again unified all the fragmented kingdoms into one empire and  became the Holy Roman Empire again.

After Otto, the empire lost its strength again and slowly the control of power, starting with Frederick III, shifted to the Habsburgs. It also designated a complete shift of power from Rome: Frederick III was the penultimate emperor to be crowned by the pope, and the last to be crowned in Rome. From there the Habsburgs ruled the present day Germany, Italy and Austria until the arrival of Charles VI whose reign ended in 1740.

The Reformation of the 16th century had made managing the empire more difficult and made its role as “holy” questionable. Despite Lutheranism and Calvinism being tolerated from 1555 and 1648 onwards respectively, Catholicism remained the only recognized faith. Even then, the Imperial Church diminished from the 16th century onwards, only Mainz surviving as an ecclesiastical territory by 1803. The “holy” nature of the empire became even more questionable when the possibility of permanent peace with the Ottoman Empire, widely seen as the mortal enemies of Christian Europe, was accepted through the 1699 Peace of Karlowitz.

  1. Otto I. The Holy Roman Emperor
  2. The Treaty of Verdun
  3. The Kingdom of West Francia (the precursor of medieval France)
  4. The Middle Francia or Lotharingia
  5. The East Francia (the Kingdom of Germany)
  6. Maps
    1. Under Charlemagne (800 AD)
    2. Sixteenth century under Charles V
    3. Map of Germany
    4. Northern Germany
      1. Schleswig-Holstein
      2.  Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
      3.  Lower Saxony ( Area where Weser river drains into North sea. The valley up to the Elbe river on the east of Weser and equal area on the west. Dortmund, Bremen on the west,  Hamburg on east of Elbe)
    5. Western Germany
      1. Lombardy  (North Italy with Milan, Parma, Genoa, Turin)
      2. Burgundy (Marseilles, Nice, Lyon, Geneva, Basel)
      3. Swabia ( Zurich, Lake Constance) Current Switzerland
      4. Lorraine(Metz, Verdun, Triar, Aachen. Cologne, Antwerp)
      5. Franconia
    6. Eastern Germany
    7. Bohemia (Prague, Czech Republic. Elbe river)
    8. Bavaria

  1. Introduction
  2. Charlemagne
    1. Pippin, Charlemagne’s son, died 810
    2. Charles the Younger, Charlemagne’s son. died 811
    3. Louis the Pious, Charlemagne’s son, King of the Franks. 814 AD
      1. Lothar I, first son of Louis the Pious, king of Middle Francia
      2. Charles the Bald, second son of Louis the Pious, king of West Grancia
      3. Louis the German, third son of Louis the Pious, king of East Francia
    4. Charles VI, 1740, last ruler of Habsburg House
    5. Francis II Last Holy Roman Emperor 1769-1821
    6. French Revolution 1789
    7. The Battle of Austerlitz i
    8. Napoleon Bonaparte and end of the Holy Roman Empire: 1806

The Dutch Classical Painting: Portraits

To The Dutch Classical Paintings

List of Portraits in The National Gallery Of Art, Washington

Bagpipe Player Brugghen 1624
Young Boy in Profile Judith Leyster 1630
A Young Man in a Large Hat Frans Hals 1629
Portrait of an Elderly Lady Frans Hals 1633
Saskia van Uylenburgh Rembrandt 1635
Man in Oriental Costume Rembrandt 1635
Portrait of a Member of the Haarlem Civic Guard Frans Hals
An Old Lady with a Book Rembrandt 1637
A Polish Nobleman Rembrandt 1637
Willem Coymans Frans Hals 1645
Adriaen van Ostade Frans Hals
A Girl with a Broom Rembrandt 1651
Portrait of a Young Man Frans Hals
Portrait of a Man Frans Hals
Portrait of a Gentleman Frans Hals
Portrait of Rembrandt Rembrandt
Head of an Aged Woman Rembrandt
Portrait of a Gentleman with a Tall Hat and Gloves Rembrandt
Portrait of a Lady with an Ostrich-Feather Fan Rembrandt
A Woman Holding a Pink Rembrandt

Dutch Classical Painting

Master Index of Painting
Genre Painting of the 17th Century
Background of Renaissance Art

Dutch War
Roman Britain
Saxon Britain
Viking Britain
Norman Britain
Tudor Britain
Victorian Britain
World War Two

Table of Content

  1. Introduction to Dutch Classical Painting 1620 – 1672
    1. Protestant Reformation
    2. How did the Reformation affect the artists of sixteenth century northern Europe?
    3. Index of Renaissance Art 14-16th Century
  2. Subject matter
    1. Genre
    2. Still lives
    3. Portraits
    4. Land/Seascapes
  3. Famous Dutch Painters
    1. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669)
    2. Johannes Vermeer (1632-1675)
    3. Pieter Brueghel the Elder (c. 1525-1569)
    4. Jan Steen (1626-1679)
    5. Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450-1516)
    6. Lucas van Leyden (1494-1533)
    7. Frans Hals (1580-1666)
    8. Hendrick Terbrugghen (1588-1629)


Because Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world during much of the 17th century, this period became known in Dutch history as the Dutch Golden Age.

To understand the Classical Dutch paintings, it is important to remember the outbreaks of destruction of religious images that occurred in Europe in the 16th century, known in English as the Great Iconoclasm. During these spates of iconoclasm, Catholic art and many forms of church fittings and decoration were destroyed in unofficial or mob actions by Protestant crowds – particularly in Netherland or in the seven provinces by the Calvinist Protestants –  as part of the Protestant Reformation. Most of the destruction was aimed at destroying all forms of art, such at painting in churches and public places.

So, for the painters in most of Europe,  that area of work obviously dried up — something that  Italian renaissance excelled upon. This is one difference between the Italian Renaissance and 17th century art.

Another major difference was in the nature of the economy. In the 17th century, there was market economy, artists had to sell their products in the market to the public to make a living. There was no king or queen’s court where they could spend their life painting for them. In fact, most monarchies in the seventeenth century spent significant amount of their budgets on  military matters.  For example, by the end of the century France spent over three quarters of its revenue on warfare alone.

Also. Protestant reformers were suspicious of sculptural expression, so painting became a more popular medium. The decline in religious patronage by the Protestant Churches led artists to change their focus to secular subjects. 

These quite possibly is one of the main reason for the Dutch Golden era painters fan out into  secular areas like history, portraiture, genre, landscape, still life  etc. The amount of religious art produced in Protestant countries was hugely reduced.  Rembrandt did about 80 portraits and the fact that he did so many has a lot of do with virtually no work available inside churches of Holland.


The Medici Family

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Renaissance Humanism
Petrarch: One of the earliest Humanists

The Medici Family

Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici Filippo Brunelleschi
The Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence
The Sacrifice of Isaac
Holy Trinity, 1427
Santa Maria Novella, Florence
Lorenzo Ghiberti the bronze reliefs for the door of the Baptistery of Florence.
Leon Battista Alberti Della pittura (On Painting), his famous treatise on painting
Giorgio Vasari The painting on the inside of the Dome
Cosimo di Giovanni de’ Medici
founded the first public library in Florence 1444
had started the collection of books that became the Medici Library
Donatello Donatello’s David Ref 1
Ref 2
Donatello Judith and Holofernes
Fra Angelico
Fra Filippo Lippi
Michelozzo Michelozzi

Lorenzo de’ Medici

Lorenzo de’ Medici
the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance culture in Italy
Leonardo da Vinci
Domenico Ghirlandaio
Andrea del Verrocchio
Piero del Pollaiuolo
Antonio del Pollaiuolo
Giovanni di Lorenzo de’ Medici (1475–1521)

1400: Florence was split into four quarters – Santo Spirito, Santa Croce, San Giovanni, and Santa Maria Novella. Florence is changing due to tourist influence and has some amazing non-Italian options as well. My favorites are Gandhi (Indian), Gangnam (Korean BBQ), and Tehran (Persian.)

1401 Ghiberti lands commission for Baptistry doors
1402 Giovanni di Bicci elected Prior of Florence for first time
Baldassare Cossa made a Cardinal
1404 Donatello begins working for Ghiberti
1406 Filippo Lippi born
1410 Baladassare Cossa elected Pope John XXIII with the financial help of the Medici
1412 1412: Medici family made official Papal bankers
1415 1415: Henry V of England wins famous battle of Agincourt
Jan Hus questions the authority of multiple claimants to papacy and is burned at the stake. Baldassare Cossa deposed from papacy, flees to Florence
1416 1416: Piero de’Medici born
1418 1418: Brunelleschi, the Renaissance’s premiere engineer, starts work on Church of San Lorenzo
1419 1419: Brunelleschi begins work on Ospedale degli Innocenti Donatello unveils tomb of Baldassare Cossa
Baldassare Cossa, the Pope who fled, dies in Florence
1420 1420: Brunelleschi commissioned to erect the dome of Florence Cathedral
1421 1421: Giovanni di Bicci elected Gonfaloniere, head of state in Florence
1424 1424: Goldsmith and artist, Ghiberti’s first set of baptistry doors unveiled
1435 1425: Ghiberti starts his second set of baptistry doors
1427: Medici list 31 family branches in city tax return
1429 1429: Giovanni di Bicci dies
Led by Albizzi, Florence declares war on Lucca
Brunelleschi unveils tomb of Giovanni di Bicci, San Lorenzo
1430 1430: Plague in Florence
1433 1433: Disastrous war with Lucca ends in defeat for Florence.
Cosimo de’Medici banished from Florence by the Albizzi family: a public vote banishes him for 10 years
1434 1434: The Albizzi family collapse after making war against Duke of Milan
Pope Eugenius IV demands Cosimo return from exile
1436 1436: Brunelleschi’s dome complete
1437 1437: Cosimo opens world’s first public library at San Marco
1439 1439: Council of Florence: leads to a temporary union of the Orthodox and Catholic Churches
1440 1440: Florentine victory over Milan at Battle of Anghiari.
1445 1445: Botticelli born
1446 1446: Donatello unveils David
Brunelleschi dies
1449 1449: Lorenzo de’Medici born
1450 Cosimo’s friend, Francesco Sforza, becomes Duke of Milan
Johannes Gutenburg publishes the first printed book – the Bible

The development of humanism in Florence during Medici

The Linear Perspective

Masaccio was the first painter in the Renaissance to incorporate Brunelleschi’s discovery, linear perspective, in his art. He did this in his fresco the Holy Trinity, in Santa Maria Novella, in Florence. He moved away from the International Gothic style and elaborate ornamentation of artists like Gentile da Fabriano to a more naturalistic mode that employed perspective and chiaroscuro for greater realism. Uponh earing of Masaccio’s death, Filippo Brunelleschi said: “We have suffered a great loss.”

Martin Luther and the Reformation

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Master Index of Religion

Main events at the beginning of Modern world

  1. Protestant (Protesting Christians) Reformation
    1. Martin Luther
    2. Pope Leo X (1513-1521 )
    3. Why did German princes support Martin Luther?
    4. The Diet of Worms (1521)
    5. Peace of Augsburg 1555
      1. Germany divided between Catholics and Lutherans
    6. English Reformation
  2. Conclusion

Map of Europe

Christianity before Martin Luther during the Middle Ages (475-1500)

Throughout the Middle Ages, the Church condoned a kind of institutionalized slavery called Feudalism. Feudal European society was made up of three parts: 1. The Nobility had most of the secular power and owned most of the land. 2. The Church controlled religion. and 3. the peasantry did all the hard labor. For commoners, that was 90% of the population. Life was pretty miserable, most children died before adulthood. Punishments for the poor was harsh. It was a fearful time, people worked the land only to survive the winters. Life for the vast majority was a dreary existence, made tolerable only as a preparation to go to heaven. The Church offered a glimmer of home, with a promise of eternal happiness in the paradise. Art was considered legitimate only if it glorified God.

The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would define the continent in the modern era. In northern and central Europe, reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin and Henry VIII challenged papal authority and questioned the Catholic Church’s ability to define Christian practice. They argued for a religious and political redistribution of power into the hands of Bible- and pamphlet-reading pastors and princes. The disruption triggered wars, persecutions and the so-called Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church’s delayed but forceful response to the Protestants.

Martin Luther

Image result for martin luther reformation timeline

The Roman Christianity was colliding with the new ideas of early  16th century Europe. It was rocked by fearless explorers, adventurous thinkers, one of which was this German monk Martin Luther King who could no longer stay silent looking at the wealth and corruption at his own church. And, in contrast with Savonarola, Luther did gain the protection of influential patrons.  Many of the German princes supported Luther. They used the religious struggle as a weapon against their feudal lord, the Holy Roman emperor, who had allied with the Catholic Church.

Ten years later, in the late 1520s, Luther’s followers were called Protestants because of their protests about the church.

On Oct. 31, 1517, Martin Luther nailed a list of complaints against the Catholic Church onto the door of the church in Wittenberg, Germany. These complaints, called the 95 Theses, claimed that the Catholic Church had become too obsessed with money and power, was too interested in worshiping images, and did not encourage people to live by their faith in Christ. For example, why does a Christian has to go to a church for a sin they have committed or a mistake they have made? Martin Luther declared that people did not need the church to forgive their sins. They could pray directly to God for salvation.  This led to a boiling point between the Pope and Martin Luther which needed the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to mediate between the two.

German princes – the Saxon Dukes, Frederick the Wise and his brother John the Constant — protected Luther because they were tired of the power of the Catholic church.

Much of Charles’ empire was made of German states, so to defend Europe from the threatening Ottomans, he needed German support. Knowing Martin Luther had powerful German friends, the emperor had to deal with Luther cautiously. He agreed to give Luther a hearing (in 1521) and summoned him to the imperial diet — that’s like a congressional hearing in the city of Worms on the Rhine River.

His refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor. Even though he had been promised safe-conduct in and out of Worms, he had to leave before he was sentenced to be burned. Afterwards he was kept safe at Wartburg under the disguise of “Junker Jörg”; protection was provided by Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony. It was at Wartburg he translated the New Testament from Greek to German. Martin Luther took residence at the Wartburg Castle to escape death. During his stay at Wartburg in 1521, Luther translated the New Testament from Greek into German and poured out doctrinal and polemical writings.
This was the beginning of a division within the Christian church known as the Protestant Reformation. This caused a religious division, which had some serious impact on politics across Europe and, of course, this meant some major changes in the arts too (See Classical Dutch Paintings). Indeed, Martin Luther’s stand at the city of Worms had changed Europe and Christianity forever, and contributed to the birth of modern world.

From here starts a new chapter in history – from Medieval Darkness to Renaissance Humanism. This is a story of progress of human society in Europe. With this, the Christianity was divided into three main divisions:  Catholics and Protestants in Western Europe, Greek Orthodox in the east.

    Protestant Reformation in Europe: Religions in Europe 1600

    Catholic: Spain, Portugal, Ireland, Most of France, Italy (the countries along the Mediterranean)

    The Sale of Indulgences by Holbein

    Comparative analysis has revealed that states right across Europe in the early modern period devoted a remarkably high percentage of their revenues to fiscal‐military measures.  Most monarchies in the seventeenth century spent about half their budgets on narrowly recurrent conceived military matters (not including debt service or new capital projects).  By the end of the century France spent over three quarters of its revenue on warfare alone.  The Danish kings spent 88% of their available finances on war, Peter the Great of Russia devoted 90% of his revenue to martial affairs, while the Austrian Habsburgs spent a remarkable 93 %. Lest one think warfare was merely the game of kings, the Dutch Republic spent over 80% of its revenue on warmaking in the same period.

    The British state in the eighteenth century diverged from this European and historical pattern.   While most European states, whether monarchies or republics, were dramatically increasing their emphasis on fiscal‐military spending, Britain began spending relatively more of its revenues on non‐fiscal military issues.  In the mid‐1720s, for example, over 40% of British expenditures were either on social or economic initiatives.  After the Revolution of 1688‐89, exactly in the period when Britain was radically expanding its army and navy, Britain also ramped up its social expenditures.

    “The period since the Revolution [of 1688‐89] is distinguished by principles of a very different nature,” the Scottish political economist Sir John Sinclair recalled at the end of the eighteenth century.  “The State has assumed the appearance of a great corporation: it extends its views beyond the immediate events, and pressing exigencies of the moment – it forms systems of remote as well as immediate profit – it borrows money to cultivate, defend, or to acquire distant possessions, in hopes that it will be amply repaid by the advantages they may be brought to yield…. In short it proposes to itself a plan of perpetual accumulation and aggrandizement, which according as it is well or ill conducted, must either end in the possession of an extensive and powerful empire, or in total ruin.”

    European comparisons confirm the notion that state‐making was a political choice rather than the necessary response to international conflict. Europe’s greatest power in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the Spanish monarchy developed what scholar has identified as “the first fiscal military state.

    Yet in the later seventeenth century, while it still maintained Europe’s largest and richest empire, Spain experienced “an administrative devolution in which many of the centralizing and bureaucratic features of the Spanish system were seriously weakened.” The result was that by the end of the seventeenth century “rather than a modern fiscal‐military state structured by the central government, Spain had a military structure connected to and shaped by networks of entrepreneurs, aristocrats and city elites.”ciii The Spanish Habsburg monarchs clearly chose to devolve their state as a political expedient. Indeed, the Bourbon monarchs of the eighteenth century successfully built a new fiscal‐military apparatus in the first half of the eighteenth century. The Dutch, too, after victory in the War of the Spanish Succession chose to ramp down their fiscal‐military state despite retaining one of Europe’s most dynamic economy. Explaining these changing dynamics, like interpreting the patterns of British state development requires more than mapping the size of the state onto chronological patterns of warfare; it requires close and careful analysis of political choices.




    1. Book
    2. Maps
    3. 2.
    4. The TRANSFORMATION OF THE WEST 1450 – 1750
    6. History of Protestantism

    Lexus GX470 Suspension Shock or Strut Replacement Cost

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    1. Replace the rear airbag suspension pieces with a coil from Strutmaster  (Parts cost $829.00)
      1. Call 866-597-2397
    2. Two shocks on the rear
      1. Parts
      2. Labor
    3. Two shocks on the front
      1. Parts
      2. Labor
    5. How To Repair Air Suspension On 2003-2009 Lexus GX 470 video

    6. How to replace air spring on Lexus GX470 video

    GX470 GTS Suspension Kits Include:

    1. 2 Front Struts 
    2. 2 Rear Shocks
    3. 2 Front Coil Springs (Light or Heavy Spring Rate)
    4. 2 Rear Coil Springs (Medium or Heavy Spring Rate)
    5. Fit Kit

    The average cost for a Lexus GX470 suspension shock or strut replacement is between $779 and $1,027.

    • Labor costs are estimated between $253 and $319 while parts are priced between $526 and $707.
    • This range does not include taxes and fees, and does not factor in your specific model year or unique location. Related repairs may also be needed.
    • This range is based on the number and age of Lexus GX470’s on the road. For a more accurate estimate based on your Lexus and location, use our Fair Price Estimator.

    What should I expect to pay for having the rear shocks replaced? The labor cost would probably be around an hour for each shock on the rear, so 2 hours total at $100 an hour should be $200 total labor costs.  Really, it’s a 30 minute job for an experienced technician with a lift to do the rear shocks, but you’ll probably be charged 1.5 to 2 hours. Any more than 2 hours labor and you’re being ripped off.

    I did a short write up where I used OEM Toyota shocks for the rear instead of the Lexus ones which saves a lot of money. The parts were only around $80.

    Lexus rear shocks with the ride control are considerably more, I think last time I checked they were close to $1000 a piece.

    Read  Rear Shock Replacement for 2004 GX470

    What should I expect to pay for having the front shocks replaced?

    Would it be better to have all the shocks replaced at the same time? The fronts don’t have to be replaced because of the rears and there’s no reason to do all of them at the same time unless it’s just more convenient for you.

    Troubled Lexus GX 470 Air Suspension: Repair, Replace or Convert?

    Option 2: Replace Your Air Suspension With Another Air Suspension — A new air suspension will run you close to $4,000, likely more when extra labor is figured in.

    Option 3: Convert (and Save!) If you’re tired of always dealing with air suspension issues and want to save some money, a conversion kit might be the answer. These kits allow Lexus GX 470 owners to ditch that air suspension in favor of sturdy, reliable coilover struts.


    You can convert all four wheels of your Lexus to coilovers for less than $700! That’s more than $3,000 you’ve saved on replacing all four wheels. 

    If if you are referring to the rear suspension (which is an air suspension) many of us will take this off at some point vs repairing, and replacing the rear airbag suspension pieces with a coil from many suppliers or even an FJ/4Runner of the same generation.

    Laptop Price

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    2021 Black Friday (Nov 20-27) Deals

    1. Dell Inspiron 15 5510 15.6-in , i7-11390H, Windows 11 Home, 15.6-inch FHD (1920 x 1080), 512GB SSD for $783.99
    2. Dell XPS 13 9305 13.3-in Laptop w/Intel Core i5-1135G7, Windows 11 Home, 256GB SSD for $636.99
    3. HP Black Friday Deals
    4. HP 15t-dy200 15.6-in Laptop,  i7-1165G7, 16 GB memory, 256GB SSD, Windows 11 Home, for $594.99
    5. HP ENVY 17t-ch100, Intel® Core™ i5-1155G7 (up to 4.5 GHz with Intel® Turbo Boost, 8 GB memory,  Intel® Iris® Xe Graphics,  512 GB, Windows 11 Home, 17.3″ (1920 x 1080) $799.99

    The Early Conquerors of India

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    The History Of Bengal
    From The First Mohameddan Invasion
    Until The Virtual
    Conquest Of That Country By The English in 1757
    By Charles Stewart

    List of rulers of Bengal

    Section I. Of the Early Conquerors of India
    Year Governor of Bengal Emperor of Hindoostan King of England
    1001 Sultan Mahmood Ghazy Ethelred
    1030 Musaood I Canuta

    1041 Modood Hardicanute
    1098 Mussood III William II
    1115 Arsilla Henry I
    1117 Behram Shah —–
    1157 Khusero I Henry II
    1162 Khusero II —–
    1358 Ibrahim Edward The Confessor

    Early Conquerors of Bengal

    Year Governor Of Bengal Emperor of Hindoostan Dynasty King Of England
    1204 Bukhtyar Khullijy Qutb al-Din Aibak Slave John
    1206 Mohammed Sheran Khalji     
    1208 Ali Murdan Khalji    
    1212 Ghyas Addeen Khalji Altumsh (r 1210–36)  
    1227 Nasir Addeen   Henry Ill
    1230 Ala Adden    
    1237 Toghan Khan Sultana Rizia  
    1244 Timour Khan Byram II (r. 1240–42)  
    1246 Sief Addeen Nasir Adeen Mahmood (r 1246–1265)  
    1253 Mulk Yuzbek    
    1257 Jelal Adden    
    1258 lrsiran Khan    
    1260 Tatar Khan    
    1277 Toghil Bain Edward I
    1282 Nasir Adeen    
    1290   Jalal-ud-din Khalji (r. 1290–1296) Edward I
    1325 Kudden Khan Mohammed III, Muḥammad ibn Tughluq (r 1325-51) Edward II

    Bengal under Muhammadan rule was practically divided into little chiefships, ruled by semi-independent princes, almost all of whom were Hindus. The Rajas of Dinajpur, Rajshahi, Nadiya, Bishnupur, and Panchet (Purulia) were practically little kings, paying tribute to the Nuwabs residing at Gaur, Dacca, Rajmahal or Murshidabad, and they ruled over their subjects with almost the arbitrary power of an independent sovereign,

    The monetary advantage of Bengal to Great Britain

    The revenues of Bengal and Orissa, consisting chiefly of rents paid for land, the property of which is vested in the sovereign, were fixed by Raja Todarmal, about the year 1582 (during the reign of the Emperor Akbar) at one crore, six lacs, ninety-three thousand, one hundred and fifty-two rupees; or, at 8 rupees per pound sterling 1,336,644.
    During the government of Sultan Shuja they were raised to one crore, thirty-one lacs, fifteen thousand nine hundred and seven rupees, or 1,639,4I8l 7s 6d.
    In the year 1722 they were increased, by the Nawab Murshid Kuli Jafar Khan, to one crore, fifty-two lacs, forty-five

    The gains of Bengal from British Administration

    The strength of the Government of British India directed as it has been, has had the effect of securing its subjects, as well from foreign depredation, as from internal commotion. This is an advantage rarely experienced by the subjects of Asiatic States; and, combined with a domestic administration, more just in its principles, and exercised with far greater integrity and ability than the native one that preceded it, may sufficiently account for the improvements that have taken place; and which, in the Bengal provinces, where peace has been enjoyed for a period of time perhaps hardly paralleled in Oriental history, have manifested themselves in the ameliorated condition of the great mass of population although certain classes may have been depressed by the indispensable policy of a foreign government. The nature and circumstances of our situation prescribe narrow limits to the prospects of the natives, in the political and military branches of the public service: strictly speaking, however, they were foreigners who generally enjoyed the great offices in those departments, even under the Mogul government: