|1469||Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella|
|1478||The Spanish Inquisition|
|1482-92||The Granada War: The Nasrid dynasty’s Emirate of Granada surrenders to Ferdinand and Isabella. Muslim rule that started in 711 in Iberian peninsula comes to an end.|
|1486||Ferdinand and Isabella rejects Columbus’ request for funding his voyage to India|
|1492||Columbus’ first voyage|
After the conquest during the Age Of Exploration, religious reforms focused on improved education for the clergy and stricter enforcement of Christian doctrine in the population at large. [See Spanish Inquisition] The Spanish Inquisition (in 1478) was put in place by Ferdinand and Isabella in large part to ensure the orthodoxy of those who converted from Judaism and Islam. This regulation of the faith of the newly converted was intensified after the royal decrees issued in 1492 and 1502 ordering Jews and Muslims to convert or leave Spain.
The Alhambra (Granada, Spain), one of the spectacular tourist spots
“In the same month in which their Majesties [Ferdinand and Isabella] issued the edict that all Jews should be driven out of the kingdom and its territories, in the same month they gave me the order to undertake with sufficient men my expedition of discovery to the Indies.” So begins Christopher Columbus’s diary. The expulsion that Columbus refers to was very cataclysmic. On March 30, they issued the expulsion decree, the order to take effect in precisely four months. On July 30 of 1491, the entire Jewish community, some 200,000 people, were expelled from Spain. The Spanish Jews who ended up in Turkey, North Africa, Italy, and elsewhere throughout Europe and the Arab world, were known as Sephardim — Sefarad being the Hebrew name for Spain.
Following the annexation, The city of Granada, which had been the last center of Muslim power in the Iberian Peninsula, lost its political importance and even much of its economic importance, and entered a long period of decline.