The Byzantine Empire (330–1453)

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  1. Introduction
    1. Maps of the Balkan Peninsula
    2. Chronology of Byzantine Empire
    3. A Narrative on Byzantine Empire by H G Wells
    4. List of Rulers of Byzantium
  2. Early Byzantium Emperors 324 -867 AD
    1. Constantine the Great, of IllyrianGreek origin
    2. Theodosius I,  379-392 (last emperor to rule over the full extent of the empire)
    3. Age of  Justinian (527-65)
    4. Gothic war between Byzantine and Ostrogoths 535-40AD
  3. Middle Byzantium Emperors 867 – 1204 AD
    1. Sack of Constantinople in 1204: Fourth Crusade
  4. Nicaean Emperors 1204-1261
  5. Late Byzantium Emperors (The Palaiologoi) 1259 – 1453
  6. Fall of Constantinople in 1453
  7. Relationship with the Kiev Rus north of Black Sea
  8. Relationship with the Muslims

From Manual Power To Electricity

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The Cotton Manufacture to Modern factory

Engines, Electricity, Evolution

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    1. Engines
      1. Internal Combustion Engine
    2. Electricity
      1. Induction motors
      2. Alternator
      3. Inverters

The Internal Combustion Engine


  • An ICE is a completely mechanical device. Hence the name “engine”, whereas, “motor” denotes an electrical device.

Four steps of a 4-cylinder ICE:

  1. Intake
  2. Combustion
  3. Power
  4. Exhaust
    • Intake: As the piston moves downwards, the intake valve opens to fill fuel and air in the combustion chamber.
    • Combustion: Next the intake valve closes and the piston moves upwards that compresses the fuel and air mixture.
    • Power: Next the spark plug ignites the compressed fuel and air mixture causing it to burn explosively which forces the piston into another downward stroke.
    • Exhaust: As the piston begins its second upwards stroke, the exhaust valve opens and the burned air fuel mixture is forced out of the combustion chamber.

Cooling System Parts
1. Water pump: Heart of cooling system which pumps the coolant
2. Radiator
3. Thermostat
4. Coolant Temperature Sensor (CTS)
5. Coolant (Antifreeze + water)

How an engine works – comprehensive tutorial animation featuring Toyota engine

Induction Motors

  1. How does an Induction Motor work ? By Learn Engineering


  1. They generate AC power at a specified frequency – they are the workhorse of the power generation (PSE&G) industry
  2. The magnetic poles on the rotor  are powered by DC Generator
  3. Electricity is produced by ELectro-magnetic induction. Here a magnetic field rotates with respect to a coil
  4. Rotor produces rotating magnetic flux which induces electricity in stationary armature coils

From:  How does an Alternator work ? By Learn Engineering


  1. Inverters, How do they work? By Learn Engineering

Industrial Revolution in The 20th Century

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The Twentieth Century 1905-48

Airplane 1903 The Wright brothers’ flight at Kitty Hawk, NC
Radio 1906 The first advertisement for a radio appeared in print on Jan. 13, in Scientific American.
Sound Movies or Talkies
Radar  1922  Marconi proposed a fairly practical radar system in 1922.
The Transistor
Rectifiers/Diode 1904 John Ambrose Fleming
1906 Lee De Forest created Triode which permitted electronic amplification
1909 Robert E. Peary reached the North Pole for the first time.
1909 Henry Ford introduced  the Model “T” automobile. Mass production was on its way.
1913 Niels Bohr’s theories of atomic structure and introduction of the “Bohr atom” model, with electrons spinning in orbits around a nucleus composed of neutrons and protons.


Factory Electrification

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Electrification of factories began very gradually in the 1890s after the introduction of a practical DC motor by Frank J. Sprague and accelerated after the AC motor was developed by Galileo Ferraris, Nikola Tesla and Westinghouse, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky and others. Electrification of factories was fastest between 1900 and 1930, aided by the establishment of electric utilities with central stations and the lowering of electricity prices from 1914 to 1917.[Ref 1]

Electric motors were several times more efficient than small steam engines when it came to powering factories. This is because electricity was generated in a central station and then distributed to multiple factories through distribution lines, whereas, you needed a steam engine for each factory. Also, the steam engines were inefficient because line shafts and belts had high friction losses.

Tesla’s Induction Motor From
How does an Induction Motor work ? by Learn Engineering
Why Induction motors are good for commercial use? They do not need:

  • Permanent magnet
  • Brushes
  • Commutator rings
  • Position sensors

Used in elevators, cranes and electric cars.

The first worldwide technology exhibition, The Great Exhibition in 1851 at London marked the climax of Britain’s inventive supremacy. Britain indeed led the technological advances from 1750 to 1850 that started with James Watt’s Steam Engine. But after that, the continental Europe and American inventors took the initiative away from the British when Internal Combustion Engines came along to power transportation by land, water and air. The steam-trains and steamships, inventions led by the British, were gone. The Internal Combustion Engines ( with cylinders, pistons, crankshafts, valves and flywheels) were the marvels of mechanical engineering.

Gottlieb Daimler, Karl Benz and Wilhelm Maybach were at the forefront of the development of modern car — or Internal Combustion – engines. But their cars were custom made. American Henry Ford first started mass production of cars by founding the Ford Motor Company in 1903.

Next will come the progress in Electrical Engineering in the form of AC motors. The next Exhibition at Chicage in 1893 would showcase the American lead in technology where AC motors developed by Tesla and Westinghouse would be exhibited.

The Columbian Exposition in 1893

The World Columbian Exposition was the World’s Fair commemorating 400 years since Christopher Columbus set foot in the New World.  Located on Lake Michigan to facilitate access by sea, road and rail.  It was a gathering of ideas, men and technologies from every quarter of the globe, with each country contributing its best of their industrial, cultural, commercial and educational enterprises.  The Renaissance style of the exposition buildings was unsurpassed by its architecture beauty.  The Exposition itself was a work of art.  The Exposition was a brilliant spectacle of science, art and industry.  All the world has its pilgrimage to Columbian Exposition in 1893.  Westinghouse became dedicated to promoting the polyphase alternating current system and felt that his best chance to introduce it to the public at large would be at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago.  The exposition was the greatest event in America and in the world at that time.  Ever the ingenious promoter Westinghouse outbid Edison for the contract to power the expositions lighting and electrical systems.  Over Two Hundred thousand electric light bulbs were illuminated by Tesla’s polyphase alternating current system.  The Westinghouse display was a historic collection of machines, all powered with Tesla/Westinghouse alternating current.  It was a spectacular display of lights and energy, which illuminated the exposition.

This is the Chicago Exposition of 1893. The city of Chicago, proud of what it was  achieving, put on an exposition of the great industrial achievements of the world. Here’s just one of those buildings. This is, as you can see, the Electricity Building, built to show off all the incredible new achievements in generating electric power. See this scale right here? That’s the length of a football field. In one of these halls, Henry Adams was drawn, in 1893 and then again at another exhibition in Paris in 1900, to the dynamos.[Ref 1]


Here is one of those dynamos in Chicago in 1893. It’s generating vast amounts of power, unlike a big steam engine that would be huffing and puffing, it’s whirring along silently.

Henry Adams writes as to how he stood in front of this thing. Look at the sense of scale you have. See that man there, right in the foreground? So Adams describes he’s being given a tour by a scientist. To the scientist, the dynamo itself was but an ingenious channel for conveying somewhere the heat latent and a few tons of poor coal hidden in a dirty engine house carefully kept out of sight. But to Adams, the dynamo became a symbol of infinity. As he grew accustomed to the great gallery of machines, he began to feel the 40 foot dynamos as a moral force.

Tesla’s Patent for Dynamo engine


Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing Company operated from December 1884 through 1886. It was formed in a partnership between Tesla, Robert Lane and Benjamin Vale with Tesla given the task of designing an arc lighting system, a fast growing segment of the new electric light industry used mostly for outdoor lighting.

Looking for a new high-tech venture, Peck and Brown decided to back Tesla in 1886 and in April 1887, backed by a number of financiers and technicians, Tesla establishes Tesla Electric Company.

In the newly erected laboratory Tesla constructed and demonstrated his first polyphase induction motors and generators. But success was not easily achieved, as his ideas to promote (AC) alternating current was difficult to finance, and by other hand his investors weren’t really interested in the development of the AC technology because its future application still was unkown and controversial.

Alternating Current & the induction motor of Nikola Tesla 



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Chapter 19,  Textiles from A Short History of Technology By Derry and Williams

The cotton factories were first powered by water power. Then James Watt invented the steam engine. Soon, the cotton factories were powered by steam engines built by Watt.
Then came electricity.

In 1790, Samuel Slater, a cotton spinner’s apprentice who left England the year before with the secrets of textile machinery, built a factory from memory to produce spindles of yarn. The factory had 72 spindles, powered by by nine children pushing foot treadles, soon replaced by water power.

  1. The Cotton Manufacture (Manual->Water powered -> Steam Powered –> Electricity)
      1. Whitney’s Cotton-Gin
      2. First water-powered cotton factory, Arkwright’s Manchester mill,  built in 1781.
      3. Cotton factories powered by steam engine made by Boulton & Watt in 1790
        1. Boulton & Watt
      4. Cotton factories powered by electricity
        1. Factory Electrification
        2. household electrification
        3. rural electrification or railway electrification.

By 1800 Manchester had emerged as the world’s first industrial city and the centre of the world cotton trade. The nickname ‘Cottonopolis’ summed up Victorian Manchester’s global status.

The Industrial Revolution

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    1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BRITISH CAPITALISM 1783-1833 — Chapter 7,  Capitalism And  Slavery by Eric Williams 
    2. Industrial Revolution 
    3. From Manual Power To Electricity

    4. A Short History of Technology By Derry and Williams
      1. Chapter 18. The Rise Of The Modern Chemical Industry
      2. Chapter 19. Textiles
    5. Engines, Electricity, Evolution  
    6. Power for Automobile
      1. The Internal Combustion Engine
      2. Electric automobiles
    7. Factory Electrification
    8. The Dyname and The Virgin
    9. The Second Industrial Revolution: 1890-1914
    10. Industrial Revolution in the 20th Century 1904-48


History of Netherland

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The Burgundian Netherlands (1384-1482)

Burgundian possessions under the rule of Duke Charles the Bold 1465–1477

See also Charles V’s European territories. Red represents the Crown of Aragon, magenta the Crown of Castile, orange his Burgundian inheritances, mustard yellow his Austrian inheritances, and pale yellow the balance of the Holy Roman Empire.

The 1482 Treaty of Arras

The Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century.

In 1556, the Low Countries (consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium), the region comprised of modern Belgium and the Netherlands, was transferred from the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to his son Phillip II of Spain. This transfer of power dramatically affected the region.For Charles, the Low Countries were not only his birthplace but also animportant source of wealth from the region’s rich textile industry andtrade market. The early 1500s was the period of the Reformation in theCatholic church, and many regions in Europe, including parts of the Low Countries, were becoming Protestant. Charles was keen to keep hisbeloved Low Countries Catholic, so he implemented legislation againstanti-Catholic sentiment.
In his reign, the foreign-born Phillip II continued his father’s policiesof anti-Protestantism, increased taxation, and centralization of power.While the people of the Low Countries had seen Charles as a native son,Phillip was an outsider who spoke little Dutch and had never lived in theregion. The continuation of his father’s policies led to an outright revoltthat would come to be called the 80 Years War. In 1579, the northern portion of the Low Countries seceded, creating the foundation of theDutch Republic. Despite the ongoing war in the region until 1648, it wasa period of relative peace and prosperity in the newly freed north.
These maps show the progression of the 80 Years War. In 1568, William II, Prince  of Orange, a wealthy Protestant nobleman, led the revolt against Phillip II of Spain that would begin the 80 Years War. Seven northern provinces declared independence from Spain in 1579.

War against Spain: 1573-1588

The bitter fighting of 1572-3 is the prelude to a prolonged war between the northern provinces of the Netherlands and the Spanish monarchy.

United Provinces and House of Orange: from 1588

In 1588 seven northern provinces of the Netherlands begin to see themselves as a republic – the United Provinces. They are Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overijssel, Friesland and Groningen. Their political structure is a loose one, dating back to an informal arrangement made in the Union of Utrecht.

Each province is independent but has one vote in a combined States General, where decisions are supposed to be taken unanimously. Each province appoints its own chief executive or stadholder – from a Dutch word meaning ‘place holder’ or viceroy, deriving from the days of the Spanish monarchy and retained as an office by the republican provinces.

William of Orange has been stadholder of the two most powerful provinces, Holland and Zeeland.

The Spanish Netherlands

 Location of Spanish Netherlands

The Peace of Westphalia [Ref 1, Ref 2]was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster.These treaties ended the Thirty Years’ War in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years’ War between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic. The peace negotiations involved a total of 109 delegations representing European powers, including Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Philip IV of Spain, the Kingdom of France, the Swedish Empire, the Dutch Republic, the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire and sovereigns of the free imperial cities.The treaties that comprised the peace settlement were: The Peace of Münster between the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Spain on 30 January 1648, ratified in Münster on 15 May 1648.

The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster, 15 May 1648 By Gerard Ter borch

File:Bartholomeus van der Helst, Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster.jpg

Bartholomeus van der Hels – Banquet at the Crossbowmen’s Guild in Celebration of the Treaty of Münster [1648]

In Treaties of Versailles (1783), Holland had to make concessions in India and in the far east. But these are nothing to the upheavals facing the Dutch republic during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.

1795-1806 Batavian Republic

The proclamation of the Batavian Republic in 1795 brought an end after over two centuries to the once glorious Dutch Republic. The new state was a virtual satellite of France and stood for the ideals of the French Revolution: liberty, equality, fraternity.

Kingdom of Holland and French rule: 1806-1813

Napoleon declares in 1806 that Holland is to be a kingdom, with his 28-year-old brother Louis Bonaparte as king. Much to the surprise of the emperor, Louis takes his royal responsiblities seriously and attempts to rule in the interests of the Dutch.

Read more:

The Rise of the Dutch Republic

The Low Countries from 1556 to 1648.

Close inspection of the maps shows that while there was intermittent warfare until 1648, there was also relative political stability in some of the most economically prosperous regions of the Dutch Republic, including the province of Holland with its major city, Amsterdam.


The Enlightenment

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“Together, Locke and Newton would become English figureheads of the Enlightenment. With Newton, Locke did so much to sponsor the 18th-century picture of the world as a kind of celestial clock, a vast and mechanical assembly of matter in motion, with man taking his place as an element, like a cog, in a regular and predetermined universe.”

Table of Content

  1. What is enlightenment?
  2. The Enlightenment relationship with the church
  3. Women in the Enlightenment
  4. Intellectual histories
  5. Literature as a historical source
  6. Areas for teaching
  7. Eighteenth-century education in theory and practice
  8. Politics and political theory in the 18th century
  9. Religion in the Enlightenment
  10. Science in the Enlightenment
  11. The Enlightenment in America
  12. The philosophy of aesthetics
  13. The Scottish Enlightenment
  14. Women in the Enlightenment


  1. The Enlightenment By Ralph McLean
  2. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding by John Locke (1689)


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Chapter 7,  Capitalism And  Slavery by Eric Williams

European colonial empires at the start of the Industrial Revolution.


Before the 18th century, the manufacture of cloth was performed by individual workers, in the premises in which they lived.

In 1764, Thorp Mill, the first water-powered cottonmill in the world was constructed at Royton, Lancashire, England. It was used for carding cotton. The multiple spindle spinning jenny was invented in 1764. James Hargreaves is credited as the inventor.

The cotton industry was the capitalist industry par excellence.The first steam spinning mill was set up in England in 1785, the first in Manchester in 1789. Between 1785 and 1800, eighty-two steam engines were constructed for cotton mills, fifty-five of these in Lancashire alone. The first steam loom factory was built in Manchester in 1806. In 1835 there were 116,800 power looms in all Great Britain, all but six per cent in the cotton industry.

In 1785 the exports of British cotton manufactures exceeded one million pounds in value; they were thirty-one million in 1830. The cloth printed in Great Britain increased from 20 million yards in 1796 to 347 million in i83o. The population employed by the industry rose from 350,000 in I788 to 800,000 in i8o6. There were 66 cotton mills in Manchester and Salford in 1820, 96 in i832. Cotton was “raising men like mushrooms.

British cotton imports rose from 11 million pounds in 1784 to 283 million in 1832. The New World, thanks to Eli Whitney, had come, not for the last time, to the rescue of the Old. The United States supplied less than one-hundredth part of British cotton imports in the five years 1786-1790, three-quarters in the years 1826-1830, four-fifths in 1846-1850. The British West Indian planter, faithful to his first love, sugar, could not keep pace with Manchester’s requirements. The sugar islands provided seven-tenths of British cotton imports in 1786-1790, one-fiftieth in 1826-1830, less than one-hundredth part in i846-1850.

The West Indies had built up Manchester in the eighteenth century.


Less spectacular, perhaps, but no less significant was the progress made in the metallurgical industries, without which the reign of machinery would have been impossible. Britain’s production of pig iron increased ten times between 1788 and 1830. There were three times as many furnaces in operation in 1830 as in 1788. The iron sent down the Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire Canals increased two and a half times between the years 1820 and 1833; from Cyfartha the export doubled, from Dowlais it trebled during the same period. In 1800 the proportion of home make to the foreign import was four to one; in 1828, fifty to one.

Britain after Waterloo,” Clapham writes, “clanged with iron like a smithy.
Iron smelting required coal. The coal mines worked in Northumberland and Durham almost doubled in number between 1800 and 1836, production increased from six million tons in 1780 to thirty million in 1836. An enormous saving was effected when in 1829 the invention of the hot blast in smelting reduced the coal fuel required by more than two-thirds.

Iron was being put to a variety of new uses pillars, rails, gas and water mains, bridges, ships. Wilkinson built a “cast iron chapel” for the Methodists at Bradley, and London even experimented with iron paving. But the greatest victory was in the construction of machinery. The early textile machinery was made of wood, by the manufacturers themselves or to their order. The decade of the twenties saw the emergence of the professional purveyor of machines made with the help of other machines, and the beginning of the manufacture of interchangeable parts which was facilitated by the invention of new tools and the discovery of the technique of cutting accurate screws. In 1834 the firm of William Fairbairn offered to turn out an equipped mill for any price, trade, site or motive power.

In 1832 the average iron master ranked, as capitalist and entrepreneur, on equal terms with the cotton spinner. In the Reformed Parliament not only cotton, iron, too, was ready to discard monopoly as a suit it had outgrown. Bar iron exports more than doubled between 1815 and 1833, and in 1825 Britain permitted what turned out to be a fatal decision a partial relaxation of the ban on the export of machinery. British rails covered the railroads of France and the United States. The sugar colonies took one-tenth of British iron exports in 1815, one-thirty-third in 1833; the United States one-quarter in 1815, one-third in 1833. The sugar planters, who had for so long enjoyed an unquestioned right to a box seat, could now barely find standing room.

The opponents of the measure, however, backed down afterthe King’s reluctant promise to create sufficient new^ peers, andthe Reform Bill became law. The political structure of Englandwas brought into accord with the economic revolution which had taken place. In the new Parliament the capitalists, their needs and aspirations were paramount. Once the colonial trade had meant everything. In the new capitalist society the colonies had little place. “The exportation of a piece of British broadcloth,” wrote Eden in 1802, “is more beneficial to us than the re-exportation of a quantity of Bengal muslin or of West India coffee of equal value.” 64 In 1832 an official of the East India Company explained to a parliamentary committee that woolens were exported to China, even when the market was not good, as a matter of tradition and duty: “it was considered a moral obligation.” Trade by “moral obligation” was one of the deadly sins in the gospel according to Manchester.

Note:  Jamaica’s sugar boom

In the mid-17th century, sugarcane had been brought into the British West Indies by the Dutch from Brazil. Upon landing in Jamaica and other islands, they quickly urged local growers to change their main crops from cotton and tobacco to sugar cane. With depressed prices of cotton and tobacco, due mainly to stiff competition from the North American colonies, the farmers switched, leading to a boom in the Caribbean economies. Sugar was quickly snapped up by the British, who used it in cakes and to sweeten teas.


The slave trade was abolished in 1807, slavery in 1833, the sugar preference in 1846.

The advocates of East India sugar persistently attacked the West Indian monopoly. They called the islands “sterile rocks,” whose insatiable calls for money represented “an eternal sponge on the capitals of this country, both national and commercial.”

The West Indian monopoly was not only unsound in theory, it was unprofitable in practice. In 1828 it was estimated that it cost the British people annually more than one and a half million pounds. In 1844 it was costing the country 70,000 a week and London 6,ooo. England was paying for its sugar five millions more a year than the Continent. Three and a half million pounds of British exports to the West Indies in 1838,
said Merivale, purchased less than half as much sugar and coffee as they would have purchased if carried to Cuba and Brazil. Two-fifths of the price of every pound of sugar consumed in England represented the cost of production, two-fifths went in revenue to the government, one-fifth in tribute to the West Indian planter.

Time was when the leading statesmen were on the West Indian side. Now Palmerston lined up with the opponents of the planters.

The West Indians tried to stem the free trade torrent. Their exclusive possession of the home market was their just reward for the restrictions imposed on them by the colonial
system. The superior advantages of their rivals made competition impossible and the protecting duty indispensable to their preservation. In the case of India they pointed to the cheapness of labor, the abundance of food and unlimited extent of the richest soil, capable of irrigation and intersected with navigable rivers. Whatever the state of these colonies their refrain was always the same — protection. “Ruin” was ever the first word in their  vocabulary a word used to designate “not the poverty of the people, not the want of food or raiment, not even the absence of riches or luxury, but simply the decrease of sugar cultivation.”

West Indian claim for protection was weakened after 1836when the protecting duty was extended to East Indian sugarwhich could plead no such difficulties and disadvantages asfaced the West Indians.49 And Gladstone knew that the coursehad been run. Protection could not be permanent, and even ifcontinued for twenty years, would not bring West Indian cultivation to a sound and healthy state.

The colonial system was the spinal cord of the commercialcapitalism of the mercantile epoch. In the era of free trade the industrial capitalists wanted no colonies at all, least of all the West Indies.

To Molesworth, one of the outstanding colonial reformers, Britain’s colonial policy was motivated by “an insane desire of worthless empire,” as on the frontier of the Cape Colony in South Africa, where “the loss of one axe and two goats . . . has cost this country a couple of millions sterling.” Australiawas a collection of “communities, the offspring of convict emigration.”New Zealand was a constant headache with its “imbecilegovernors, discreditable functionaries, and unnecessarywars with the natives.” South Africa was “a huge worthless andcostly empire, extending over nearly 300,000 square miles,chiefly rugged mountains, and arid deserts, and barren plains,without water, without herbage, without navigable rivers, withoutharbours, in short, without everything except the elementsof great and increasing expense to this country.” In charge of this diverse and heterogeneous collection of colonies was theColonial Secretary, “traversing and retraversing, in his imagination, the terraqueous globe flying from the Arctic to the Antarctic pole hurrying from the snows of North America to the burning regions of the Tropics rushing across from the fertile islands of the West Indies to the arid deserts of South Africa and Australia like nothing on earth, or in romance, save the Wandering Jew.” The cost of protecting this empire was one-third of Britain’s export trade to the colonies. Colonial independence was cheaper. The colonies should be freed from the “ever-changing, frequently well-intentioned, but invariably weak and ignorant despotism” of the Colonial Office.