Eclipses occur when a moon or planet moves into the shadow of another object. In the case of a solar eclipse, the new moon’s shadow falls on the Earth. During a lunar eclipse, the full moon passes through the Earth’s shadow. A solar eclipse can occur only the night of a new moon.
When the moon passes directly between the sun and Earth, a solar eclipse takes place. (NASA)
Total Solar Eclipse
Total and Annular solar eclipse. Remember, a solar eclipse can occur only the night of a new moon.
When Earth passes directly between the sun and the moon, a lunar eclipse takes place. (NASA)
A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind the Earth into its umbra (shadow). A lunar eclipse can occur only the night of a full moon.
Within the central umbra shadow, the moon is totally shielded from direct illumination by the Sun. In contrast, within the penumbra shadow, only a portion of Sunlight is blocked.