Treaty Of Tordesillas, 1494

Go Back To the Age Of Exploration


Read Treaty Of Tordesillas — BBC


The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and the Crown of Castile, … Wikipedia
Location: Archivo General de Indias (Spain); Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo (Portugal)
Created: 7 June 1494 in Tordesillas, Spain
Author(s): Pope Alexander VI
Signatories: Ferdinand II of Aragon; Isabella I of Castile; John, Prince of Asturias; John II of Portugal
Ratified: 2 July 1494 in Spain; 5 September 1494 in Portugal


Treaty of Tordesillas

On June 7, 1494, the governments of Spain and Portugal agreed to the Treaty of Tordesillas, named for the city in Spain in which it was created. The Treaty of Tordesillas neatly divided the New World of the Americas between the two countries along a vertical demarcation border which was drawn from pole to pole across the Atlantic Ocean (as shown above). Only a part of Brazil fell into Protugal and the entire continent went to Spain. 
Spain and Portugal adhered to the treaty without major conflict, and the results linger throughout the Americas today. Most Latin American nations are Spanish-speaking countries, for instance, but Portuguese is the leading official language in Brazil. This is because the eastern tip of Brazil penetrates the line agreed to in the Treaty of Tordesillas, so the region was colonized by Portugal.

For years following 1494, the Spanish lamented their consent to the Treaty of Todesillas, convinced that they had received the short end of the stick. Their initial discoveries in the New World yielded little mineral wealth, but much disease and discomfort. Their evaluation of this bargain with Portugal changed dramatically in the 1520s as the riches from Aztec Mexico began to be exploited.

Most importantly, however, the Treaty of Tordesillas, completely ignored the millions of people already living in established communities in the Americas. The treaty stipulated that any lands with a “Christian king” would not be colonized. Christianity had not spread to the Americas, and the resulting colonization proved disastrous for indigenous cultures such as the Inca, Taino, Aztec, Tupi, and thousands of other bands throughout the Americas.


Vespucci revealed existence of new continent in the west — the America.
Columbus trail blazed route to the New World.

Other Spaniards soon followed exploring interior of Mexico conquering any resistance — Aztec, Mayans and Incas — along the way.
Hernando Cortez — travelled to Mexico and conquered Aztec and their leader Montezuma

Francisco Pizarro — travelled to Peru and conquered Incas. With 200 men, Pizarro conquered land equal in size of China.
Pizarro brought horses that the native people never saw before. The horses allowed Pizarro to move quickly. Also natives did not have ship. These 200 people had weapons — guns, cannons that natives did not have.


References

  1. The Influence of the Spanish conquistadors in the New World  Youtube
  2. 5 Most Ruthless & Feared Conquistadors Youtube
  3. Renaissance and Discovery II – God, Glory and Gold: The Age of Exploration Youtube
  4. https://subratachak.wordpress.com/2016/02/15/ch-15-the-rise-of-empires-in-the-americas/

Age Of Exploration

Go Back to the Modern Era


Old-World-And-New_World

The Old and The New World during the 15th century

  1. Leif Eriksson – the first explorer in history

  2.  Pre-Columbian era
  3. Exploration in the 15th Century
    1. Christopher Columbus
      1. Columbian Exchange
    2. Treaty Of Tordesillas1494
    3. Portuguese Exploration
      1. Famous Portuguese Conquistadors Pedro Álvarez Cabral
    4. Spanish Exploration
      1. The Influence of the Spanish conquistadors in the New World
    5. Famous Spanish Conquistadors
      1. Hernán Cortés
      2. Pedro de Alvarado
      3. Francisco Pizarro
      4. Hernando de Soto
      5. Nuño de Guzmán
  4. Exploration in the 16th Century
    1. 1519: Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire: Hernán Cortés
    2. 1532: Spanish_conquest_of_the_Inca_Empire
  5. Major events
    1. 1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral discovers Brazil
    2. 1521 Aztecs surrender to Cortes’s forces; Mexico under Spanish Crown
    3. 1531 Pizarro destroys the Inca regime; Peru under Spanish Crown
    4. Ecuador seized by Spanish
    5. Robert de La Salle 1682 – explored the entire Mississippi River and on the west side of it for France. He named this are “Louisiana,” because of the French king, King Louis XIV.


References

  1. The Explorers The Dawning of the Era of Exploration
  2. https://subratachak.wordpress.com/2016/02/15/ch-15-the-rise-of-empires-in-the-americas/

British Timeline I

Go Back To British History


Time Events Took Place/ Literary Works
3000 B.C. Probably Proto-Indo-European started living across the Baltic Ocean
1000 B.C. Among their variousbranches Celtic proved themselves as a distinct race and started dwelling in different parts of Europe of what is now called Spain, France, Germany, Austria, eastern Europe, and the British Isles.
600 B.C. Coming of the first Celtic invasion. They are known as Goidels and Gaels.
300 B.C. Coming of the Brythons
55 B.C. The first expedition of Julius Caesar, the great Roman Emperor on British Isles.
54 B.C. His second expedition.
43 A.D. Conquest of Britain by Claudius (the fourth Roman Emperor). Roman colony of “Britannia” established.
410 A.D. First Germanic tribes arrive in England from the lowlands on the other side of the North Sea./ Departure of the Romans from Britain.
410-600 A.D. Settlement of three great Germanic tribes- Angles, Saxons and Jutes along with some Frisians in Britain.
450 A.D. Traditional date of the coming of the Saxons to Britain.
547 A.D. Glidas’s History
597 A.D. Introduction to Christianity with St. Augustine’s arriving in Kent.
600-800 A.D. Rise of three great kingdoms politically unifying large areas: Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex. Supremacy passes from one kingdom to another in that order.
731 A.D. Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People.
793 A.D. First Viking raid; sacking of Lindisfarne
840-870 A.D Viking incursions grow worse and worse. Large organized groups set up permanent encampments on English soil. They slay King of Northumbria and start ruling creating a Viking Kingdom called ‘Jorvik’. Wessex remains as a final Anglo-Saxon Kingdom in Britain.
867 A.D. Danes’ conquer Northumbria.
860 A.D. Anglo-Saxon Chroniclebegun.
871 A.D. Vikings move against Wessex after losing battles. Alfred becomes king of Wessex.
871-876 A.D. During his reign of 15 years, peace and prosperity established in England. He won many battles. For this reason he is called “Alfred the Great”.
899 A.D. Death of Alfred
925 A.D. Athelstan became king.Anglo-Saxon reached the summit of power. Athelstan re-conquered York from the Vikings, and even conquers Scotland and Wales.
10th Century Danes and English started living together peacefully. Plenty of Scandinavian loan words entered into the English language, like the personal pronoun ‘they’, ‘them’, ‘their’ etc.
937 A.D. Battle of Brunanburh: Victory of Athelestan.
978 A.D Athelred became king at the very premature stage (11 years). Aethelred has proved to be a weak king, who does not repel minor Viking attacks. After losing in the hand of Viking, Aethelred flees to Normandy, across the channel.
991 A.D. The Battle of Maldon: Byrthnoth defeated by the Danes. King Sveinn of Denmark became the king. Sveinn sets up a Norse court at the new capital of Viking England, Jorvik.
1016 A.D. Sveinn’s young son Cnut crowned king of England. Cnut decides to follow in Alfred’s footsteps, aiming for a peaceful and prosperous kingdom. Encourages Anglo-Saxonculture and literature. Even marries Aethelred’s widow Emma, brought over from Normandy.
1042 A.D. Accession of Edward the Confessor, son of Aethelred and Emma.Edward is a pious, monkish man. Saxon period restored.
1049 A.D. Westminster Abbey begun.
1050 A.D. Edward grows a strong partiality for his birthplace Normandy, a duchy populated by the descendents of Romanized Vikings. Especially fond of young Duke William of Normandy. Edward is dominated by his Anglo-Saxon earls, especially powerful earl Godwin. Godwin’s son, Harold Godwinson, becomes de facto ruler as Edward takes less and less interest in governing.
1066 A.D. The landmark period for beginning a new era, The Middle English Period. Norman Conquest. Battleof Hastings between Harold, the final Saxon King and William, the Duke of Normandy. William becomes the victor. Anglo-Norman period started.

Elizabethan Literature

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Elizabethan literature refers to bodies of work produced during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I , and is one of the most splendid ages of English literature. One of the most famous monarchs in European history, Elizabeth I presided over a vigorous culture that saw notable accomplishments in the arts, voyages of discovery, the “Elizabethan Settlement” that created the Church of England, and the defeat of military threats from Spain. During her reign a London-centred culture, both courtly and popular, produced great poetry and drama. English playwrights combined the influence of the Medieval theatre with the Renaissance’s rediscovery of the Roman dramatists, Seneca, for tragedy, and Plautus and Terence, for comedy.


Also see Restoration Period (Ref 1)

Henry VIII (r. 1509-47)

Go Back To History Of England


  • Split the Church of England from the Rome Catholic Church and declared himself head of the new church
  • Split occured because the Vatican would not annul Henry’s marriage to Catherine
  • Executed the humanist Thomas More
  • Authorized creation of the Great Bible – the first official English translation of the Bible to be used in the Church of England
  • Created the Royal Navy

Henry VIII was survided by three heirs; each ruled England in turn.

Edward IV (r. 1547-53)
– crowned at the age of nine
– England’s first monarch to be raised as a Protestant
– When he dies at the age of 15, he attempted to remove his half sisters Mary and Elizabeth from the line of succession because of religious differences. Mary and Elizabeth were raised as catholics
Mary I  (r. 1553-58)
– restored power of Pope and Catholic Church
– called Bloody Mary because she executed hundreds of Protestants


In 1588 King Philip of Spain attacked England.
– England’s Royal Navy destroyed the Spanish Armada
– The victory at sea was a turning point in history for England. It ensured England’s independence from the powerful Catholic countried of the Mediterranean.

Renaissance Timeline 1480-1660
1517: Martin Luther begins Protestant Reformation
1649: Charles I executed; English monarchy suspended
1558: Elizabeth I crowned

Henry VIII crowned
c. 1533: Henry VIII splits Church of England from Rome
1564: Shakespeare born
1620: Mayflower lands at Plymouth Rock

When Elizabeth died, she was succeeded by her second cousin, James, the king of Scotland.James I (r. 1603–1625) loved literature and drama. He was a patron to Shakespeare and sponsored a new translation of the Bible.However, he was unable to resolve religious and economic concerns, and his lavish dress and court life offended pious and thrifty merchants.

Charles I (r. 1625–1649) succeeded James I, his father.Charles’s troubles with the English Parliament sparked the English Civil Wars (1642–1651), which ended indissolution of the monarchyCharles’ beheadingflight of Charles II, his son and heir, to France.

Puritans in Power (1649–1660)Puritans ruled England under the guidance of Oliver Cromwell.Cromwell was a shrewd ruler who led England to international prominence.Puritans closed down theaters from 1642 to 1660.

The Renaissance 1485-1660

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What was the Renaissance?
Revival of art, literature and learning in Europe
– It began in Italy in the fourteenth century
– Interest in the classical learning of ancient Greek and Rome was renewed
– The arts and science flowered
– The human spirit of creativity seemed to be energized


Transfer-Of-Greek-knowledge-to-western-Europe


1496 edition of Terence's Works

1496 edition of Terence’s Works


Characteristics of the Renaissance
– People read ancient Green and Roman texts to enhance their understanding of the world (See Transmission of the Greek Classics,  The Latin Translators)
– A humanist philosophy spread, focusing on human life in the present as well as on eternity
– Printing made books more widely available
– Scholarly Latin spread across Europe, aiding the sharing of ideas across cultures

The Renaissance and the Arts
Art flourished during the Renaissance. Church officials, royalty and wealthy families served as patrons to artists such as
– Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
– Michelangelo (1475-1564)
– Edmund Spenser (1552 – 1599)
– William Shakespeare (1564-1616)

Humanism in the Renaissance
– Humanists combined ideas from Latin and Greek classics with traditional Christian thought to teach people how to live and rule
– to answer questions such as — “What is good life?” and “How do I lead a good life?”
— to use the classics to strenghten, not discredit, Christianity
– Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More were two well-known humanists who helped shape European thought and history.

The Invention of Print Press
Johannes Gutenburg in the 1450s invented the printing press. His invention transformed the way information and ideas were exchanged
– Books no linger had to be copied by hand
– Books became more numerous, available and affordable

References

  1. https://subratachak.wordpress.com/2016/06/13/index-of-renaissance-art/
  2. Renaissance of the 12th Century at Florence

Reformation

Go Back to The Modern Era – the 16th century


This has been taken from Timeline of Reformation History (1517-1685)

1517 95 Theses
1519 Leipzig Debate
1520 Luther publishes three monumental works:

  • To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
  • On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, and
  • On the Freedom of a Christian.

In The Christian Nobility of the German Nation, Luther outlined the doctrine of the Priesthood of all believers and denied the authority of the Pope to interpret, or confirm interpretation of the Bible.

1521 (Jan-May)

Diet of Worms

Luther appears at the Diet before Charles V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, to to answer charges of heresy. On refusing to recant, he is declared a heretic and formally excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Leo X. Frederick III, Elector of Saxony ensures that Luther is taken to the Wartburg Castle for his own safety.
1521 (October)

Defender of the Faith

After writing Assertio Septem Sacramentorum (Defence of the Seven Sacraments) in opposition to Luther, Henry VIII of England is rewarded with the title Fidei Defensor (Defender of the Faith) by Pope Leo X.
1522

German Bible

While at the Wartburg castle, Luther works on a translation of the Bible into German and publishes his New Testament translation (The Old Testament translation is posted later, in 1534).
1526

English Bible

William Tyndale (c. 1494-1536) publishes a translation of the New Testament in English.
1533

English Reformation

The marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon is declared null and void by Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury in defiance of the Catholic church. Henry later marries Anne Boleyn.
1534

Society of Jesus

Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) of Spain founds the Society of Jesus (Jesuit) order as part of the Catholic counter-reformation. Parts of Poland, Hungry and Germany are reconverted from Protestantism to Catholicism.
1534 (November)

 

Act of Supremacy: Henry VIII becomes supreme head of the Church in England, which separates from the Roman Catholic Church.
1535

Thomas More

Thomas More (1478-1535) is executed on the orders of Henry VIII for refusing to support the English Reformation.
1536

Tyndale executed

William Tyndale burnt at the stake for heresy. His final words were: Lord! Open the King of England’s eyes.
1545-63

Council of Trent

The 19th Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church is held to reform and clarify doctrine. It repudiated Protestantism and led to the issuing of a Catechism in 1566.
1555

Peace of Augsburg

A treaty grants toleration to Lutherans within the Holy Roman Empire using the principle of cuius regio, eius religio or “Whose region, his religion”. Peace of Augsburg now divides Germany into Protestant and Catholic areas
1560

Geneva Bible

Publication of the Geneva Bible – the first translation in English to use verse and chapter divisions.
1598

Edict of Nantes

French Protestants (Huguenots) are granted toleration by Henry IV in the Edict.

The Reformation had a financial component in England where the English objected to the financial burdnes placed on them by the Vatican in Italy.

The Modern Era

Go Back to History




  1. The World in the 15th Century
    1. The Spanish Inquisition 1478
    2. Age of Exploration: Spanish and Portuguese
  2. The World in the 16th Century
    1. Reformation in Europe
    2. The Beginnings of European Imperialism
      1. Fall of Inca to Spain 1532
      2. Fall of Aztec to Spain 1519
    3. Martin Luther, 95 Theses
    4. English Reformation: (Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon declared null and void by Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury in defiance of the Catholic church
    5. Shakespeare Born 1564

Europe 1800-1900

European Politics 1815-1900: Conservatism, Liberalism, and Nationalism transforming Europe from Monarchies to National-States  in the 19th Century
The Congress of Vienna 1814-1815
Liberalism in 19th Century in Europe and United States

The Atlantic Slave Trade
Atlantic Slave Trade: The South Sea Bubble

The Middle Ages or Medieval Age (400 AD- 1500 AD)

Go Back to History


  1.  A History of Medieval Europe By R H C Davis
  2. Russia
  3. The Crusades: Principles and Perspectives[Also [Prez Obama]]

  4. The First Victims of the First Crusade By

  5. Criticism of Crusading After the Second Crusade

  6. Chronology of Medieval Europe: The early Middle Ages 400 – 900 AD
  7. Chronology of Medieval Europe: The High Middle Ages 900-1250 AD
  8. Family Tree of German Monarchs 

The Byzantine Empire

  1. A Narrative on Byzantine Empire by H G Wells
  2. Chronology of Byzantine Empire and List of Rulers of Byzantium
  3. The Byzantine Empire (500-900 AD) : Age of  Justinian (527-65)
  4. The Komnenos as Byzantine Emperor
  5. Sack of Constantinople in 1204: Fourth Crusade

  6. Fall of Constantinople in 1453

 


The Seventh Century

    1. Spread Of Islam in the seventh century in North Africa and Middle East

The Eighth Century

  1. Spread Of Islam in the eighth century in Visigothic Hispania